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JSS ACADEMY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION , BANGALORE
EVOLUTION FROM 1G TO 4G
HOW 4G WORKS
4G FEATURES AND CAPABILITIES
An abbreviation for Fourth-Generation
A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data, streamed, multimedia can be given to users on an ” Anytime, Anywhere ” basis, and at higher data rates than previous generations.
–Continuous in amplitude and time
–Variations in the signal –disrupts over long distances
Simplest type to wireless data
Average between 4,800 to 9,600 bps (bits per second)
Digital –consists of 1s and 0s
1) Low level, 2) High level, 3) Rising edge
4) Falling edge
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)
Deployed in mid 1991 in Europe
Benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones
Idea from military & Developed by Qualcomm
Using CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) One Frequency all the time
Several transmitters to send information simultaneously over single communication channel
The 3G technology adds multimedia facilities to 2G phones by allowing video, audio, and graphics applications. Over 3G phones, you can watch streaming video or have video telephony.
3G networks deliver broadband capacity and support greater numbers of voice and data customers at lower incremental costs than 2G.Standards: - W-CDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access - EVDO: Evolution-Data Optimized
CHARACTERSTICES OF 3G
A single family of compatible standards that can be used worldwide for all mobile applications.
Support for both packet-switched and circuit-switched data transmission.
Data rates up to 2 Mbps (depending on mobility).
High spectrum efficiency
DRAWBACKS BY GENERATION
The GSM is a circuit switched, connection oriented technology, where the end systems are dedicated for the entire call session. This causes inefficiency in usage of bandwidth and resources.
The GSM-enabled systems do not support high data rates.
They are unable to handle complex data such as video.
DRAWBACKS BY GENERATION
High bandwidth requirement.
High spectrum licensing fees.
4G ANYWHERE ANYTIME
Also known as ‘Mobile Broadband everywhere’
Mobile Multimedia Communication
Anywhere, Anytime with Anyone
Global Mobility Support
Integrated Wireless Solution
Customized Personal Service
Theoretically, 4G is set to deliver 100mbps to a roaming mobile device globally, and up to 1Gbps to a stationary device.
According to 4G Mobile Forum, by 2010 over $400 billion would be invested in 4G mobile projects.
In India, communication Minister Mr. Dayanidhi Maran, has announced a national centre of excellence to work in 4G arena.
HOW 4G WORKS
Each node will be assigned a 4G-IP address (based on IPv6).
Formed by a permanent “home IP address” and a dynamic “care-of ” address that represents its actual location.
When a device (computer) in the Internet wants to communicate with another device (cell phone) in the wireless network, the computer will send a packet to the 4G-IP address of the cell phone targeting on its home address.
HOW 4G WORKS? contd
Then a directory server on the cell phone’s home network will forward this packet to the cell phone’s care-of address through a tunnel, mobile IP;
The idea is that the 4G-IP address (IPv6) can carry more information than the IP address (IPv4)
IPv6 means Internet Protocol Version 6 including 128 bits, which is 4 times more than 32bits IP address in IPv4. 32 bits IP address looks like this 18.104.22.168 or 11011000.00100101.10000001.00001001 (32 bits).
The IP address in IPv6 version will be 4 times of IPv4; it looks like 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, 192.168.5.120
HOW 4G WORKS? contd
The first set of the IP address (184.108.40.206) can be defined to be the “home address”. It just likes the normal IP address that we use for addressing in the Internet and network.
Second set of the IP address (220.127.116.11) can be declared as the “care-of address”. It is the address set up for the communication from cell phones to computers
The third set of the IP address (18.104.22.168) can be signed as a tunnel (mobile IP address). An agent, a directory server, between the cell phones and PC will use this mobile IP address to establish a channel to cell phones.
The last set of IP address (192.168.5.120) can be local network address for virtual private network (VPN) sharing purpose.
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex)
Technology that transmits data simultaneously over a large number of channels at different frequencies, enable to send an large data
Using in IEEE 802.11a & g, Hiper-LAN II and IEEE 820.16 BWA
A smart antenna system combines multiple antenna elements with a signal-processing capability
Amplify the frequency to user who wants to communicate
Can adopt to OFDM & SDR
SDR (Software Defined Radio)
From military research (SPEAKeasy Project)
SDR technology is enabling frequencies and communications methods and to be changed flexibly by means of software. It responses to Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6).
MBMMR forum (MultiBand ,MultiMode , Radio)
Still in research area
Transmission up to 1Gb/s
2000 times faster than mobile data rates
10 times faster than top transmission rates planned in final build out of 3G broadband mobile
Target mobility and information bit rates
2 Mbps (250 Km/h)
20 Mbps (60 Km/h)
100 Mbps (3 Km/h)
Companies developing 4G technology
Cellular phone companies: Alcatel, Nortel, Motorola,
IT Companies: Hughes ,HP ,LG Electronics
5G is a completed wireless communication with almost no limitation; somehow people called it REAL wireless world
5G wireless system is only theory and not real
4G is ”Anytime Anywhere”
4G is still at research stage, available after 2010 (?)...
... While the impact of 3G is still uncertain!
Employing the discussed techniques, 4G has a significant potential for capacity improvements over 3G systems.
Companies developing 4G technology investing about $400 billion for its projects.
More Users/subscribers due to IPV6,large space
 UMTS Forum, “Enabling UMTS / Third Generation Services and Applications”, Technical Report 11, UMTS Forum, October 2000.
 UMTS Forum, “The Path Towards UMTS – Technologies for the Information Society”, Technical Report 2, UMTS Forum, 1998.
 Watkins, D., A., “Overview and Comparison of GSM, GPRS, and UMTS”, Bradley Department of Electrical and Compute Engineering,
MASAUM Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol.1, No. 2 September 2009