A SEMINAR REPORT ON 4G TECHNOLOGY
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The fourth generation of mobile networks will truly turn the current mobile phone
networks, in to end to end IP based networks, couple this with the arrival of IPv6, every device
in the world will have a unique IP address, which will allow full IP based communications from
a mobile device, right to the core of the internet, and back out again. If 4G is implemented
correctly, it will truly harmonize global roaming, super high speed connectivity, and transparent
end user performance on every mobile communications device in the world. 4G is set to deliver
100mbps to a roaming mobile device globally, and up to 1gbps to a stationary device. With this
in mind, it allows for video conferencing, streaming picture perfect video and much more. It
won’t be just the phone networks that need to evolve, the increased traffic load on the internet as
a whole (imagine having 1 billion 100mb nodes attached to a network over night) will need to
expand, with faster backbones and oceanic links requiring major upgrade. 4G won’t happen
overnight, it is estimated that it will be implemented by 2012, and if done correctly, should take
off rather quickly. 4G networks i.e. Next Generation Networks (NGNs) are becoming fast and
very cost-effective solutions for those wanting an IP built high-speed data capacities in the
mobile network. Some possible standards for the 4G system are 802.20, WiMAX (802.16),
HSDPA, TDD UMTS, UMTS and future versions of UMTS. The design is that 4G will be based
on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), which is the key enabler of 4G
4G (also known as Beyond 3G), an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation, is a term used to
describe the next complete evolution in wireless communications. A 4G system will be able to
provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to
users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than previous generations.
The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to
solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide variety of
new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless
channels. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access
communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe
4G is MAGIC-Mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, integrated
wireless solution, and customized personal service. As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that
is, cellular broadband wireless access systems have been attracting much interest in the mobile
communication arena. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile
service, but also will support the fixed wireless networks.
At the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was designed to
users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network. Then, in the sixties, a system
launched by Bell Systems, called IMTS, or, “Improved Mobile Telephone Service", brought
quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The very first analog
systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s. The systems were
called "cellular" because large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells", each cell is
served by a low power transmitter and receiver. The 1G or First Generation was an analog
system, and was developed in the seventies, 1G had two major improvements, this was the
invention of the microprocessor, and the digital transform of the control link between the phone
and the cell site. Advance mobile phone system (AMPS) was first launched by the US and is a
1G mobile system. Based on FDMA, it allows users to make voice calls in 1 country.
2G, or Second Generation
2G first appeared around the end of the 1980’s, the 2G system digitized the voice signal, as well
as the control link. This new digital system gave a lot better quality and much more capacity (i.e.
more people could use their phones at the same time), all at a lower cost to the end consumer.
Based on TDMA, the first commercial network for use by the public was the Global system for
mobile communication (GSM).
3G, or Third Generation
3G systems promise faster communications services, entailing voice, fax and Internet data
transfer capabilities, the aim of 3G are to provide these services anytime, anywhere throughout
the globe, with seamless roaming between standards. ITU’s IMT-2000 is a global standard for
3G and has opened new doors to enabling innovative services and application for instance,
multimedia entertainment, and location-based services, as well as a whole lot more. In 2001,
Japan saw the first 3G network launched. 3G technology supports around 144 Kbps, with high
speed movement, i.e. in a vehicle. 384Kbps locally, and upto 2Mbps for fixed stations, i.e. in a
What is 4G?
Fourth generation (4G) wireless was originally conceived by the Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the same organization that developed the wired Internet. It
is not surprising, then, that DARPA chose the same distributed architecture for the wireless
Internet that had proven so successful in the wired Internet. Although experts and policymakers
have yet to agree on all the aspects of 4G wireless, two characteristics have emerged as all but
certain components of 4G: end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP), and peer-to-peer networking. An all
IP network makes sense because consumers will want to use the same data applications they are
used to in wired networks. A peer-to-peer network, where every device is both a transceiver and
a router/repeater for other devices in the network, eliminates this spoke-and-hub weakness of
cellular architectures, because the elimination of a single node does not disable the network. The
final definition of “4G” will have to include something as simple as this: if a consumer can do it
at home or in the office while wired to the Internet, that consumer must be able to do it
wirelessly in a fully mobile environment.
Two Planes: Functional Decomposition
Noting that an IP network element (such as a router) comprises of numerous functional
components that cooperate to provide such desired service (such as, mobility, QoS and/or AAA –
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting), we identify these components in the SeaSoS
architecture into two planes, namely the control plane and the data plane.
Fig. 5 illustrates this method of flexible functional composition in 4G networks. As we
are mainly concerned with network elements effectively at the network layer, we do not show a
whole end-to-end communication picture through a whole OSI or TCP/IP stack. The control
plane performs control related actions such as AAA, MIP registration, QoS signaling,
installation/maintenance of traffic selectors and security associations, etc., while the data plane is
responsible for data traffic behaviors (such as classification, scheduling and forwarding) for endto-
end traffic flows. Some components located in the control plane interact, through installing
and maintaining certain control states for data plane, with data plane components in some
network elements, such as access routers (ARs), IntServ nodes or DiffServ edge routers.
However, not all control plane components need to exist in all network elements, and also not all
network elements (e.g., AAA server) are involved with data plane functionalities.