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ABSTRACT – “THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT OF 4G TECHNOLOGY”
Soon everyone will have high speed internet on their cell phones. This will enable instant access to e-mail and will allow fast, high quality video downloads. Moreover, all of these features will be attainable at a cheaper cost than current internet service.
Currently 2G Technology (GSM), or second generation technology, is widely used worldwide for cell phone networks. The problem with 2G technology is that the data rates are limited. This makes it inefficient for data transfer applications such as video conferencing, music or video downloads. To increase the speed, various new technologies have been in development. One of these, 4G technology, is mainly made up of high-speed wireless networks designed to carry data, rather than voice or a mixture of the two. 4G transfers data to and from mobile devices at broadband speeds – up to100 Mbps moving and 1Gbps while the phone is stationary. In addition to high speeds, the technology is more robust against interference and tapping guaranteeing higher security. This innovative technology functions with the aid of VoIP, IPv6, and Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).
Unlike the 3G networks, which are a mix of circuit switched and packet switched networks, 4G will be based on packet switching only (TCP/IP). This will allow low-latency data transmission. Also we deal with the 4G`s WiMax technology surviving in the broadband world of today Furthermore, the use of IP to transfer information will require IPv6 to facilitate the use of more cell phone devices.
During our presentation, we will give an overview of the various generations of mobile device technologies preceding 4G. We will focus on the differences between these technologies and the improvements and progress made throughout the years. This description will be followed by reasons for development of 4G. Furthermore, we will discuss the technical aspects of 4G and how it functions, as well as the way it can lead to future innovations in cellular and communication technology. We will conclude our presentation with some future implications and the possible evolution of 4G technology.
I. INTRODUCTION TO 4G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY
There is a great buzz in the world of wireless communications. Everyone is talking about 4G. What exactly is 4G, and how will it impact us?4G is just the short acronym for Fourth Generation technology for mobile communications. 4G is the “next” generation technology that will be used by cellular phone companies and internet service providers to deliver superior quality video and data apart from voice.
Interestingly, the 3G (third generation) technology is not yet operational in most countries. Many like India for example are using the 2.5 G technologies for mobile or cell phones.
4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks achieved after the convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computer, consumer electronics, communication technology, and several other convergences that will be capable of providing 100 Megabits/s and 1 Gigabits/s, respectively, in outdoor and indoor environments with end-to-end quality of service and high security, offering any kind of services anytime, anywhere, at affordable cost and one billing.
II.Wireless System Evolution
A.First generation: Almost all of the systems from this generation were analog systems where voice was considered to be the main traffic. These systems could often be listened to by third parties. Some of the standards are NMT, AMPS, Hicap, CDPD, Mobitex and DataTac
B.Second generation: All the standards belonging to this generation are commercial centric and they are digital in form. Around 60% of the current market is dominated by European standards. The second generation standards are GSM, iDEN, D-AMPS, IS-95, PDC, CSD, PHS, GPRS, HSCSD, and WiDEN.
C.Third generation: To meet the growing demands in the number of subscribers (increase in network capacity), rates required for high speed data transfer and multimedia applications, 3G standards started evolving. The systems in this standard are basically a linear enhancement of 2G systems.
They are based on two parallel backbone infrastructures, one consisting of circuit switched nodes, and one of packet oriented nodes. The ITU defines a specific set of air interface technologies as third generation, as part of the IMT-2000 initiative.
Currently, transition is happening from 2G to 3G systems. As a part of this transition, lots of technologies are being standardized. From 2G to 3G: 2.75G - EDGE and EGPRS, 3G - CDMA 2000,W-CDMA or UMTS (3GSM), FOMA, 1xEV-DO/IS-856, TD-SCDMA, GAN/UMA. Similarly from 3G to 4G: 3.5G - HSDPA, HSUPA, Super3G - HSOPA/LTE.
D.Fourth generation: According to the 4G working groups, the infrastructure and the terminals of 4G will have almost all the standards from 2G to 4G implemented. Even though the legacy systems are in place to be adopted in 4G for the existing legacy users, going forward the infrastructure will however only be packet based, all-IP. Also, some proposals suggest having an open platform where the new innovations and evolutions can fit. The technologies which are being called as 4G though not officially are as follows: WiMax, WiBro, 3GPP Long Term Evolution and 3GPP2 Ultra Mobile Broadband.
III. TECHNICAL DEFINITION OF 4G
The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless channels.
The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC—Mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, Integrated wireless solution, and Customized personal service. As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that is, cellular broadband wireless access systems have been attracting much interest in the mobile communication arena. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service, but also will support the fixed wireless networks. This paper presents an overall vision of the 4G features, framework, and integration of mobile communication. The features of 4G systems might be summarized with one word integration. The 4G systems are about seamlessly integrating terminals, networks, and applications to satisfy increasing user demands. The continuous expansion of mobile communication and wireless networks shows evidence of exceptional growth in the areas of mobile subscriber, wireless network access, mobile services, and applications.