5G Mobile Technology
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Mobile and wireless networks have made tremendous growth in the last fifteen years. Nowadays many mobile phones have also a WLAN adapter. One may suppose that near soon many mobile phones will have WiMAX adapter too, besides their 3G, 2G, WLAN, Bluetooth etc. adapters. Today 3G mobile systems are on the ground providing IP connectivity for real-time and non-real-time services. On the other side, there are many wireless technologies that have proven to be important, with the most important ones being 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN), as well as ad-hoc Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) and wireless networks for digital TV and radio broadcast. Then, the concepts of 4G is already much discussed and it is almost certain that 4G will include several standards under a common umbrella, similarly to 3G, but with IEEE 802.xx wireless mobile networks included from the beginning.
Mobile and wireless networks have made tremendous growth in the last fifteen years. Nowadays many mobile phones have also a WLAN adapter. One may suppose that near soon many mobile phones will have WiMAX adapter too, besides their 3G, 2G, WLAN, Bluetooth etc. adapters. Using IP for both, 2.5G or 3G Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) on one side and WLAN on the other, raised research on their integration. Regarding the 4G, its focus is towards seamless integration of cellular networks such as GSM and 3G. Multimode user terminals are seen as must have for 4G, but different security mechanisms and different QoS support in different wireless technologies remain a challenge. However, integration among different wireless networks (e.g. PLMN and WLAN) is functioning in practice even today. But, different wireless networks from a single terminal are used exclusively, that is, there is no combining of different wireless access technologies for a same session (e.g., FTP download).
EVOLUTION FROM 1G TO 5G
Cell phones are used millions and billions of users worldwide. How many of us know the technology behind cell phones that is used for our communication? I have also intrigued about the type of technology used in my phone. What are 1G, 2G, 3G and4Gtechnologies?
1G, 2G, 3G & 4G ("G" stands for "Generation") are the generations of wireless telecom connectivity. 1G (Time Division Multiple Access and Frequency Division Multiple Access ) was the initial wireless telecom network system. It's out-dated now. The analog “brick phones” and “bag phones” are under 1G technology. Cell phones era began with 1G.
The next era, 2G has taken its place of 1G. Cell phones received their first major upgrade when they went from 1G to 2G. This leap effectively took cell phones from analog to digital. 2G and 2.5G were versions of the GSM and CDMA connections. And GSM is still the most popular technology, but with no internet. Fortunately, GPRS, an additional service, is provided over GSM for the purpose of internet access. GPRS has been developed and thus, EGPRS was created. It's more secure and faster than GPRS.
1G WIRELESS SYSTEM
First Generation wireless technology (1G) is the original analog (An analog or analogue signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity), voice-only cellular telephone standard, developed in the 1980s. The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital.
. 2G WIRELESS SYSTEM
2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media messages). 2G technology is more efficient. 2G technology holds sufficient security for both the sender and the receiver. All text messages are digitally encrypted. This digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it.
3G WIRELESS SYSTEM
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT--2000), better known as 3G or 3rd Generation, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunications services fulfilling specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. The use of 3G technology is also able to transmit packet switch data efficiently at better and increased bandwidth. 3G mobile technologies proffers more advanced services to mobile users. The spectral efficiency of 3G technology is better than 2G technologies. Spectral efficiency is the measurement of rate of information transfer over any communication system. 3G is also known as IMT-2000.
4G WIRELESS SYSTEM
4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards compatible transmission technology, and new frequency bands.3G technologies make use of TDMA and CDMA. 3G (Third Generation Technology) technologies make use of value added services like mobile television, GPS (global positioning system) and video conferencing. The basic feature of 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) is fast data transfer rates.
5G WIRELESS SYSTEM
5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the upcoming 4G standards (expected to be finalized between approximately 2011 and 2013). Currently, 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R. New 3GPP standard releases beyond 4G and LTE Advanced are in progress, but not considered as new mobile generations. The implementation of standards under a 5G umbrella would likely be around the year of 2020.
THE 5G TECHNOLOGY
WHAT IS 5G TECHNOLOGHY?
5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 5G technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. Nowadays mobile users have much awareness of the cell phone (mobile) technology. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future.
The network layer will be IP (Internet Protocol), because there is no competition today on this level. The IPv4 (version 4) is worldwide spread and it has several problems such as limited address space and has no real possibility for QoS support per flow. These issues are solved in IPv6, but traded with significantly bigger packet header. Then, mobility still remains a problem. There is Mobile IP standard on one side as well as many micro-mobility solutions (e.g., Cellular IP, HAWAII etc.). All mobile networks will use Mobile IP in 5G, and each mobile terminal will be FA (Foreign Agent), keeping the CoA (Care of Address) mapping between its fixed IPv6 address and CoA address for the current wireless network. However, a mobile can be attached to several mobile or wireless networks at the same time.
OPEN TRANSPORT PROTOCOL (OTA) LAYER
The mobile and wireless networks differ from wired networks regarding the transport layer. In all TCP versions the assumption is that lost segments are due to network congestion, while in wireless networks losses may occur due to higher bit error ratio in the radio interface. Therefore, TCP modifications and adaptation are proposed for the mobile and wireless networks, which retransmit the lost or damaged TCP segments over the wireless link only. For 5G mobile terminals will be suitable to have transport layer that is possible to be downloaded and installed. Such mobiles shall have the possibility to download (e.g., TCP, RTP etc. or new transport protocol) version which is targeted to a specific wireless technology installed at the base stations. This is called here Open Transport Protocol - OTP.
In this paper we have proposed 5G mobile phone concept, which is the main contribution of the paper. The 5G mobile phone is designed as an open platform on different layers, from physical layer up to the application. Currently, the ongoing work is on the modules that shall provide the best QoS and lowest cost for a given service using one or more than one wireless technology at the same time from the 5G mobile phone.