Thesis- Portfolio management & Mutual Fund.pdf
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Introduction to Portfolio Management
Investing in securities such as shares, debentures, and bonds is profitable as well as exciting. It is indeed rewarding, but involves a great deal of risk and calls for scientific knowledge as well artistic skill. In such investments both rationale and emotional responses are involved. Investing in financial securities is now considered to be one of the best avenues for investing one savings while it is acknowledged to be one of the best avenues for investing one saving while it is acknowledged to be one of the most risky avenues of investment. “It is rare to find investors investing their entire savings in a single security. Instead, they tend to invest in a group of securities. Such a group of securities is called portfolio”. Creation of a portfolio helps to reduce risk, without sacrificing returns. Portfolio management deals with the analysis of individual securities as well as with the theory and practice of optimally combining securities into portfolios. An investor who understands the fundamental principles and analytical aspects of portfolio management has a better chance of success.
An investor considering investment in securities is faced with the problem of choosing from among a large number of securities and how to allocate his funds over this group of securities. Again he is faced with problem of deciding which securities to hold and how much to invest in each. The risk and return characteristics of portfolios. The investor tries to choose the optimal portfolio taking into consideration the risk return characteristics of all possible portfolios. As the risk return characteristics of individual securities as well as portfolios also change. This calls for periodic review and revision of investment portfolios of investors. An investor invests his funds in a portfolio expecting to get good returns consistent with the risk that he has to bear. The return realized from the portfolio has to be measured and the performance of the portfolio has to be evaluated.
Evolution of Portfolio Management
Portfolio management is essentially a systematic method of maintaining one‘s investment efficiently. Many factors have contributed to the existence and development of the concept. In the early years of the century analyst used financial statements to find the value of the securities. The first to be analyzed using this was Railroad Securities of the USA. A booklet entitled ―The Anatomy of the Railroad‖ was published by Thomas F. Woodlock in 1900. As the time progressed this method became very important in the investment field, although most of the writers adopted different ways to publish there data. They generally advocated the use of different ratios for this purpose. John Moody in his book ―The Art of wall Street Investing‖, strongly supported the use of financial ratios to know the worth of the investment. The proposed type of analysis later on became the ―common-size‖ analysis. The other major method adopted was the study of stock price movement with the help of price charts. This method later on was known as Technical Analysis. It evolved during 1900-1902 when Charles H. Dow, the founder of the Dow Jones and Co. presented his view in the series of editorials in the Wall Street Journal in USA. The advocates of technical analysis believed that stock prices movement is ordered and systematic and the definite pattern could be identified. There investment strategy was build around the identification of the trend and pattern in the stock price movement.
Role of Portfolio Management
There was a time when portfolio management was an exotic term. A practice which is beyond the reach of the small investor, but the time has changed now. Portfolio management is now a common term and is widely practiced in INDIA. The theories and concepts relating to portfolio management now find there way in the front pages of the financial newspapers and magazines. In early 90‘s India embarked on a program of economic liberalization and globalization, with high participation of private players. This reform process has made the Indian industry efficient, with rapid computerization, increased market transparency, better infrastructure and customer services, closer integration and higher volume. The markets are dominated by large institutional investors with their diversified portfolios. A large number of mutual funds have come up in the market since 1987. With this development investment in securities has gained considerable momentum
Along with the spread of the securities investment way among Indian investors have changed due to the development of the quantitative techniques. Professional portfolio management, backed by research is now being adopted by mutual funds, investment consultants, individual investors and big brokers. The Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is a regulatory body in INDIA. It ensures that the stock market is free from fraud, and of course the main objective is to ensure that the investor‘s money is safe.
WHAT IS MUTUAL FUND?
A mutual fund is a form of collective investment that pools money from many investors and invests the money in stocks, bonds, short-term money market instruments, and/or other securities. Mutual Fund is a trust that pools the savings of a number of investors who share a common financial goal. The money thus collected is invested by the fund manager in different types of securities depending upon the objective of the scheme. These could range from shares to debentures to money market instruments. The income earned through these investments and the capital appreciation realized by the scheme is shared by its unit holders in proportion to the number of units owned by them. Thus a Mutual Fund is the most suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in a diversified, professionally managed portfolio at a relatively low cost. The small savings of all the investors are put together to increase the buying power and hire a professional manager to invest and monitor the money. Anybody with an investible surplus of as little as a few thousand rupees can invest in Mutual Funds. Each Mutual Fund scheme has a defined investment objective and strategy.