AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH VISITOR COUNTER
AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH VISITOR COUNTER.docx (Size: 366.39 KB / Downloads: 187)
Block Diagram Description:
The basic block diagram of the Automatic Room Light Controller with Visitor Counter is shown in the above figure. Mainly this block diagram consists of the following essential blocks.
1. Power Supply
2. AT89S52 micro-controller
3. Entry and Exit sensor circuit
4. Relay driver circuit
Here we used +12V and +5V dc power supply. The main function of this block is to provide the required amount of voltage to essential circuits. +12 voltage is given. +12V is given to relay driver. To get the +5V dc power supply we have used here IC 7805, which provides the +5V dc regulated power supply.
It is a low-power, high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8KB of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the MCS-51TM instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic hip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller, which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to so many embedded control applications.
Enter and Exit Circuits:
This is one of the main part of our project. The main intention of this block is to sense the person. By using this sensor and its related circuit diagram we can count the persons.
Relay Driver Circuit:
This block has the potential to drive the various controlled devices. In this block mainly we are using the transistor and the relays. One relay driver circuit we are using to control the light. Output signal from AT89S52 is given to the base of the transistor, which we are further energizing the particular relay. Because of this appropriate device is selected and it do its allotted function.
Introduction to Embedded Systems:
Embedded systems are electronic devices that incorporate microprocessors with in their implementations. The main purposes of the microprocessors are to simplify the system design and provide flexibility. Having a microprocessor in the device means that removing the bugs, making modifications, or adding new features are only matters of rewriting the software that controls the device. Or in other words embedded computer systems are electronic systems that include a microcomputer to perform a specific dedicated application. The computer is hidden inside these products. Embedded systems are ubiquitous. Every week millions of tiny computer chips come pouring out of factories finding their way into our everyday products.
Embedded systems are self-contained programs that are embedded within a piece of hardware. Whereas a regular computer has many different applications and software that can be applied to various tasks, embedded systems are usually set to a specific task that cannot be altered without physically manipulating the circuitry. Another way to think of an embedded system is as a computer system that is created with optimal efficiency, thereby allowing it to complete specific functions as quickly as possible.
Embedded systems designers usually have a significant grasp of hardware technologies. They used specific programming languages and software to develop embedded systems and manipulate the equipment. When searching online, companies offer embedded systems development kits and other embedded systems tools for use by engineers and businesses.
Embedded systems technologies are usually fairly expensive due to the necessary development time and built in efficiencies, but they are also highly valued in specific industries. Smaller businesses may wish to hire a consultant to determine what sort of embedded systems will add value to your organization.
Two major areas of differences are cost and power consumption. Since many embedded systems are produced in the tens of thousands to millions of units range, reducing cost is a major concern. Embedded systems often use a (relatively) slow processor and small memory size to minimize costs.
The slowness is not just clock speed. The whole architecture of the computer is often intentionally simplified to lower costs. For example, embedded systems often use peripherals controlled by synchronous serial interfaces, which are ten to hundreds of times slower than comparable peripherals used in PCs.