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Arranging several elements into a purposeful sequential order.
The set of elements that can be use to
configure an organization.
Basic elements organizing
Distribution of Authority
What is ‘Designing Jobs’?
The process of linking specific tasks to specific jobs and deciding what techniques, equipment, and procedures should be used to perform those tasks
The degree to which the overall task of the organization is broken down and divided into smaller.
Adam Smith’s Exampleof Job Specialization
Making a pin (nail) requires 18 tasks
1 worker doing all 18 tasks might make
20 pins (nails) a day.
20 workers = (20 x 20) = 400 pins
+ & - Job Specialization
equipment can be more easily developed
Bore and dissatisfaction
Alternatives to Specialization
Systematically moving employees from one job to another in an attempt to reduce employee boredom.
An increase in the total number of tasks workers perform.
Increasing both the number of tasks the worker does and the control the worker has over the job.
Job Characteristics Approach
The number of tasks a person does in a job.
The extent to which the worker does a complete or identifiable portion of the total job
The perceived importance of the task
the degree of control the worker has over how the work is performed
the extent to which the worker knows how well the job is being performed.
Grouping Jobs: Departmentalization
The process of grouping jobs according to some logical arrangement.
Put positions into units based on expertise skils and similarity of work .
The grouping of activities around products or product groups.
Grouping jobs to meet the unique needs of customers.
Other Forms of Departmentalization:
Establishing Reporting Relationships
Who report to whom?
Chain of command
A clear and distinct line of authority among the positions in an organization.
Unity of Command
Each person within an organization must have a clear reporting relationship to one and only one boss.
A clear and unbroken line of authority must extend from the bottom to the top of the organization.
Span of Control (SOC)
Number of people who report to a particular manage
Narrow Span of control
Wide span of control
Tall and Flat Organization
Power that has been legitimized by the organization.
The process by which managers assign a portion of their total workload to others.
Reasons for Delegation
To enable the manager to get more work done by utilizing the skills and talents of subordinates.
Steps in the Delegation Process
Problems in Delegation
reluctant to delegate
Reluctant to accept delegation for fear of failure.
Prefers to avoid any risk and responsibility.
Decentralization and Centralization
In an organization if all the decision making power and authority is concentrated in top management only we say that the organization is centralized.
If the decision making power and authority is spread over all the levels of mgt including lower level then the organization is decentralized
The process of linking the activities of various departments of organization
Structural Coordination Techniques
The Managerial Hierarchy
Placing one manager in charge of interdependent departments or units.
Rules and Procedures
Routine coordination activities can be handled via rules and procedures
A manager coordinates interdependent units by acting as a common point of contact, facilitating the flow of information.
Used with multiple units when coordination is complex, requiring more than one individual and the need for coordination is acute.
Permanent organizational units that maintain internal integration and coordination on an ongoing basis.
E-mail, cell phones.
Differentiating Between Positions
Positions in the direct chain of command responsible for the achievement of an organization’s goals.
Positions intended to provide expertise, advice, and support to line positions.
The degree to which managerial positions are concentrated in staff positions.