BLUE EYES FULL SEMINAR REPORT.doc
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Is it possible to create a computer which can interact with us as we interact each other? For example imagine in a fine morning you walk on to your computer room and switch on your computer, and then it tells you “Hey friend, good morning you seem to be a bad mood today. And then it opens your mail box and shows you some of the mails and tries to cheer you. It seems to be a fiction, but it will be the life lead by “BLUE EYES” in the very near future. The basic idea behind this technology is to give the computer the human power. We all have some perceptual abilities. That is we can understand each others feelings. For example we can understand ones emotional state by analyzing his facial expression. If we add these perceptual abilities of human to computers would enable computers to work together with human beings as intimate partners. The “BLUE EYES” technology aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings.
Imagine yourself in a world where humans interact with computers. You are sitting in front of your personal computer that can listen, talk, or even scream aloud. It has the ability to gather information about you and interact with you through special techniques like facial recognition, speech recognition, etc. It can even understand your emotions at the touch of the mouse. It verifies your identity, feels your presents, and starts interacting with you .You ask the computer to dial to your friend at his office. It realizes the urgency of the situation through the mouse, dials your friend at his office, and establishes a connection.
Human cognition depends primarily on the ability to perceive, interpret, and integrate audio-visuals and sensoring information. Adding extraordinary perceptual abilities to computers would enable computers to work together with human beings as intimate partners. Researchers are attempting to add more capabilities to computers that will allow them to interact like humans, recognize human presents, talk, listen, or even guess their feelings.
The BLUEEYES technology aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings. It uses non-obtrusige sensing method, employing most modern video cameras and microphones to identify the user’s actions through the use of imparted sensory abilities. The machine can understand what a user wants, where he is looking at, and even realize his physical or emotional states.
EMOTION AND COMPUTING
One goal of human computer interaction (HCI) is to make an adaptive, smart computer system. This type of project could possibly include gesture recognition, facial recognition, eye tracking, speech recognition, etc. Another non-invasive way to obtain information about a person is through touch. People use their computers to obtain, store and manipulate data using their computer. In order to start creating smart computers, the computer must start gaining information about the user. Our proposed method for gaining user information through touch is via a computer input device, the mouse. From the physiological data obtained from the user, an emotional state may be determined which would then be related to the task the user is currently doing on the computer. Over a period of time, a user model will be built in order to gain a sense of the user's personality. The scope of the project is to have the computer adapt to the user in order to create a better working environment where the user is more productive. The first steps towards realizing this goal are described here.
Rosalind Picard (1997) describes why emotions are important to the computing community. There are two aspects of affective computing: giving the computer the ability to detect emotions and giving the computer the ability to express emotions. Not only are emotions crucial for rational decision making as Picard describes, but emotion detection is an important step to an adaptive computer system. An adaptive, smart computer system has been driving our efforts to detect a person’s emotional state. An important element of incorporating emotion into computing is for productivity for a computer user. A study (Dryer & Horowitz, 1997) has shown that people with personalities that are similar or complement each other collaborate well. Dryer (1999) has also shown that people view their computer as having a personality. For these reasons, it is important to develop computers which can work well with its user. By matching a person’s emotional state and the context of the expressed emotion, over a period of time the person’s personality is being exhibited. Therefore, by giving the computer a longitudinal understanding of the emotional state of its user, the computer could adapt a working style which fits with its user’s
personality. The result of this collaboration could increase productivity for the user.
One way of gaining information from a user non-intrusively is by video. Cameras have been used to detect a person’s emotional state (Johnson, 1999). We have explored gaining information through touch. One obvious
place to put sensors is on the mouse. Through observing normal computer usage (creating and editing documents and surfing the web), people spend approximately 1/3 of their total computer time touching their input device. Because of the incredible amount of time spent touching an input device, we will explore the possibility of detecting emotion through touch.
THEORIES AND TECHNOLOGIES
1. PAUL EKMAN’S FACIAL
Based on Paul Ekman’s facial expression work, we see a correlation between a person’s emotional state and a person’s physiological measurements. Selected works from Ekman and others on measuring facial behaviors describe Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System (Ekman and Rosenberg, 1997). One of his experiments involved participants attached to devices to record certain measurements including pulse, galvanic skin response (GSR), temperature, somatic movement and blood pressure. He then recorded the measurements as the participants were instructed to mimic facial expressions which corresponded to the six basic emotions. He defined the six basic emotions as anger, fear, sadness, disgust, joy and surprise. From this work, Dryer (1993) determined how physiological measures could be used to distinguish various emotional states.
Six participants were trained to exhibit the facial expressions of the six basic emotions. While each participant exhibited these expressions, the physiological changes associated with affect were assessed. The measures taken were GSR, heart rate, skin temperature and general somatic activity (GSA). These data were then subject to two analyses. For the first analysis, a multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure was used to determine the dimensionality of the data. This analysis suggested that the physiological similarities and dissimilarities of the six emotional states fit within a four dimensional model.
For the second analysis, a discriminant function analysis was used to determine the mathematic functions that would distinguish the six emotional states. This analysis suggested that all four physiological variables made significant, nonredundant contributions to the functions that distinguish the six states. Moreover, these analyses indicate that these four physiological measures are sufficient to determine reliably a person’s specific emotional state. Because of our need to incorporate these measurements into a small, non-intrusive form, we will explore taking these measurements from the hand. The amount of conductivity of the skin is best taken from the fingers. However, the other measures may not be as obvious or robust. We hypothesize that changes in the temperature of the finger are reliable for prediction of emotion. We also hypothesize the GSA can be measured by change in movement in the computer mouse. Our efforts to develop a robust pulse meter are not discussed here.
2. MANUAL AND GAZE INPUT CASCADED (MAGIC) POINTING
This work explores a new direction in utilizing eye gaze for computer input. Gaze tracking has long been considered as an alternative or potentially superior pointing method for computer input. We believe that many fundamental limitations exist with traditional gaze pointing. In particular, it is unnatural to overload a perceptual channel such as vision with a motor control task. We therefore propose an alternative approach, dubbed MAGIC (Manual And Gaze Input Cascaded) pointing. With such an approach, pointing appears to the user to be a manual task, used for fine manipulation and selection. However, a large portion of the cursor movement is eliminated by warping the cursor to the eye gaze area, which encompasses the target. Two specific MAGIC pointing techniques, one conservative and one liberal, were designed, analyzed, and implemented with an eye tracker we developed. They were then tested in a pilot study. This early stage exploration showed that the MAGIC pointing techniques might offer many advantages,
including reduced physical effort and fatigue as compared to traditional manual pointing, greater accuracy and naturalness than traditional gaze pointing, and possibly faster speed than manual pointing.
The pros and cons of the two techniques are discussed in light of both performance data and subjective reports.
The MAGIC pointing program takes data from both the manual input device (of any type, such as a mouse) and the eye tracking system running either on the same machine or on another machine connected via serial port. Raw data from an eye tracker can not be directly used for gaze-based interaction, due to noise from image processing, eye movement jitters, and samples taken during saccade (ballistic eye movement) periods. We experimented with various filtering techniques and found the most effective filter in our case is similar to that described. The goal of filter design in general is to make the best compromise between preserving signal bandwidth and eliminating unwanted noise. In the case of eye tracking, as Jacob argued, eye information relevant to interaction lies in the fixations. The key is to select fixation points with minimal delay. Samples collected during a saccade are unwanted and should be avoided. In designing our algorithm for picking points of fixation, we considered our tracking system speed (30 Hz), and that the MAGIC pointing techniques utilize gaze information only once for each new target, probably immediately after a saccade. Our filtering algorithm was designed to pick a fixation with minimum delay by means of selecting two adjacent points over two samples.
3. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT SPEECH RECOGNITION
It is important to consider the environment in which the speech recognition system has to work. The grammar used by the speaker and accepted by the system, noise level, noise type, position of the microphone, and speed and manner of the user’s speech are some factors that may affect the quality of speech recognition .When you dial the
telephone number of a big company, you are likely to hear the sonorous voice of a cultured lady who responds to your call with great courtesy saying
“Welcome to company X. Please give me the extension number you want”. You pronounce the extension number, your name, and the name of person you want to contact. If the called person accepts the call, the connection is given quickly. This is artificial intelligence where an automatic call-handling system is used without employing any telephone operator.
3.1. THE TECHNOLOGY
Artificial intelligence (AI) involves two basic ideas. First, it involves studying the thought processes of human beings. Second, it deals with representing those processes via machines (like computers, robots, etc). AI is behavior of a machine, which, if performed by a human being, would be called intelligent. It makes machines smarter and more useful, and is less
expensive than natural intelligence. Natural language processing (NLP) refers to artificial intelligence methods of communicating with a computer in a natural language like English. The main objective of a NLP program is to understand input and initiate action. The input words are scanned and matched against internally stored known words. Identification of a key word causes some action to be taken. In this way, one can communicate with the computer in one’s language. No special commands or computer language are required. There is no need to enter programs in a special language forcreating software.
3.2. SPEECH RECOGNITION
The user speaks to the computer through a microphone, which, in used; a simple system may contain a minimum of three filters. The more the number of filters used, the higher the probability of accurate recognition. Presently, switched capacitor digital filters are used because these can be custom-built in integrated circuit form. These are smaller and cheaper than active filters using operational amplifiers. The filter output is then fed to the ADC to translate the analogue signal into digital word.
The ADC samples the filter outputs many times a second. Each sample represents different amplitude of the signal .Evenly spaced vertical lines represent the amplitude of the audio filter output at the instant of sampling. Each value is then converted to a binary number proportional to the amplitude of the sample. A central processor unit (CPU) controls the input circuits that are fed by the ADCS. A large RAM (random access memory) stores all the digital values in a buffer area. This digital information, representing the spoken word, is now accessed by the CPU to process it further. The normal speech has a frequency range of 200 Hz to 7 kHz. Recognizing a telephone call is more difficult as it has bandwidth limitation of 300 Hz to3.3 kHz.As explained earlier, the spoken words are processed by the filters and ADCs. The binary representation of each of these words becomes a template or standard, against which the future words are compared. These templates are stored in the memory. Once the storing process is completed, the system can go into its active mode and is capable of identifying spoken words. As each word is spoken, it is converted into binary equivalent and stored in RAM. The computer then starts searching and compares the binary input pattern with the templates. t is to be noted that even if the same speaker talks the same text, there are always slight variations in amplitude or loudness of the signal, pitch, frequency difference, time gap, etc. Due to this reason, there is never a perfect match between the template and binary input word. The pattern matching process therefore uses statistical techniques and is designed to look for the best fit.
The values of binary input words are subtracted from the corresponding values in the templates. If both the values are same, the difference is zero and there is perfect match. If not, the subtraction produces some difference or error. The smaller the error, the better the match. When the best match occurs, the word is identified and displayed on the screen or used in some other manner. The search process takes a considerable amount of time, as the CPU has to make many comparisons before recognition occurs. This necessitates use of very high-speed processors. A large RAM is also required as even though a spoken word may last only a few hundred milliseconds, but the same is translated into many thousands of digital words. It is important to note that alignment of words and templates are to be matched correctly in time, before computing the similarity score.
This process, termed as dynamic time warping, recognizes that different speakers pronounce the same words at different speeds as well as elongate different parts of the same word. This is important for the speaker-independent recognizers.
4 .THE SIMPLEUSER INTERST TRACKER (SUITOR)
Computers would have been much more powerful, had they gained perceptual and sensory abilities of the living beings on the earth. What needs to be developed is an intimate relationship between the computer and the humans. And the Simple User Interest Tracker (SUITOR) is a revolutionary approach in this direction.
By observing the Webpage a netizen is browsing, the SUITOR can help by fetching more information at his desktop. By simply noticing where the user’s eyes focus on the computer screen, the SUITOR can be more precise in determining his topic of interest. It can even deliver relevant information to a handheld device. The success lies in how much the suitor can be intimate to the user. IBM's BlueEyes research project began with a simple question, according to Myron Flickner, a manager in Almaden's USER group: Can we exploit nonverbal cues to create more effective user interfaces? One such cue is gaze—the direction in which a person is looking. Flickner and his colleagues have created some new techniques for tracking a person's eyes and have incorporated this gaze-tracking technology into two prototypes. One, called SUITOR (Simple User Interest Tracker), fills a scrolling ticker on a computer screen with information related to the user's current task. SUITOR knows where you are looking, what applications you are running, and what Web pages you may be browsing. "If I'm reading a Web page about IBM, for instance," says Paul Maglio, the Almaden cognitive scientist who invented SUITOR, "the system presents the latest stock price or business news stories that could affect IBM. If I read the headline off the ticker, it pops up the story in a browser window. If I start to read the story, it adds related stories to the ticker.
That's the whole idea of an attentive system—one that attends to what you are doing, typing, reading, so that it can attend to your information needs."
“BLUE EYES” system provides technical means for monitoring and recording the operator’s basic physiological parameters. The most important parameter is saccadic activity1, which enables the system to monitor the status of the operator’s visual attention along with head acceleration, which accompanies large displacement of the visual axis (saccades larger than 15 degrees). Complex industrial environment can create a danger of exposing the operator to toxic substances, which can affect his cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary systems. Thus, on the grounds of lethysmographic signal taken from the forehead skin surface, the system computes heart beat rate and blood oxygenation. The BLUEEYES system checks above parameters against abnormal (e.g. a low level of blood oxygenation or a high pulse rate) or undesirable (e.g. a longer period of lowered visual attention) values and triggers user-defined alarms when necessary. Quite often in an emergency situation operators speak to themselves expressing their surprise or stating verbally the problem. Therefore, the operator’s voice, physiological parameters and an overall view of the operating room are recorded. This helps to reconstruct the course of operators’ work and provides data for long-term analysis. This system consists of a mobile measuring device and a central analytical system. The mobile device is integrated with Bluetooth module providing wireless interface between sensors worn by the operator and the central unit. ID cards assigned to each of the operators and adequate user profiles on the central unit side provide necessary data personalization so different people can use a single mobile device.