COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS AND PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS
Comparative-Study-of-the-Public-Sector-Private-Sector-Bank.doc (Size: 3.28 MB / Downloads: 27)
The world of banking has assumed a new dimension at dawn of the 21st century with the advent of tech banking, thereby lending the industry a stamp of universality. In general, banking may be classified as retail and corporate banking. Retail banking, which is designed to meet the requirement of individual customers and encourage their savings, includes payment of utility bills, consumer loans, credit cards, checking account and the like. Corporate banking, on the other hand, caters to the need of corporate customers like bills discounting, opening letters of credit, managing cash, etc.
Metamorphic changes took place in the Indian financial system during the eighties and nineties consequent upon deregulation and liberalization of economic policies of the government. India began shaping up its economy and earmarked ambitious plan for economic growth. Consequently, a sea change in money and capital markets took place. Application of marketing concept in the banking sector was introduced to enhance the customer satisfaction the policy of privatization of banking services aims at encouraging the competition in banking sector and introduction of financial services. Consequently, services such as Demat, Internet banking, Portfolio Management, Venture capital, etc, came into existence to cater to the needs of public. An important agenda for every banker today is greater operational efficiency and customer satisfaction. The mew watchword for the bank is pretty ambitious: customer delight.
The introduction to the marketing concept to banking sectors can be traced back to American Banking Association Conference of 1958. Banks marketing can be defined as the part of management activity, which seems to direct the flow of banking services profitability to the customers. The marketing concept basically requires that there should be thorough understanding of customer need and to learn about market it operates in. Further the market is segmented so as to understand the requirement of the customer at a profit to the banks.
DEFINITION OF BANK
The Oxford dictionary defines the Bank as,
“An establishment for the custody of money, which it pays out, on a customer’s order.”
According to Whitehead,
“ A Bank is defined as an institution which collects surplus funds from the public, safeguards them, and makes them available to the true owner when required and also lends sums be their true owners to those who are in need of funds and can provide security.”
Banking Company in India has been defined in the Banking Companies act 1949,
“One which transacts the business of banking which means the accepting, for the purpose of lending or investment of the deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand, or otherwise and withdraw able be cheque, draft, order or otherwise.”
The banking system is an integral subsystem of the financial system. It represents an important channel of collecting small savings form the households and lending it to the corporate sector.
The Indian banking system has Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as the apex body for all matters relating to the banking system. It is the central Bank of India. It is also known as the Banker To All Other Banks.
EVOLUTION OF INDIAN BANKING
Ancient banking system of India constituted of indigenous bankers. They have been carrying on their age-old banking operations in different parts of the country under different names. The modern age of banking constitutes the fundamental basis of economic growth. The term Bank is being used since long time but there is no clear conception regarding its beginning. According to the viewpoint, in good old days. Italian money leaders were known as “Banchi” because they kept a special type of table to transact their business.
IMPORTANCE OF BANKS
Today banks have become a part and parcel of Kotak Bank's life. There was a time when dwellers of the city alone could enjoy their services. Now banks offer access to even a common man and their activities extend to areas hitherto untouched. Banks cater to the needs of agriculturalists, industrialists, traders and to all the other sections of the society. In modern age, the banking constitutes the fundamental basis of economic growth. Thus, they accelerate the economic growth of a country and steer the wheels of the economy towards its goals of “self reliance in all fields”. It naturally arouses Kotak Bank's interest in knowing more about the ‘Bank’ and the various men and the activities connected with it.
Indian Banking System
Banking in India has its origin as early as the Vedic period. It was believed that transition from money lending to banking must have occurred even before Manu, The great Hindu Jurist, who has devoted a section of his work to deposit advance and laid down rules relating to rates of interest. During the Mogul period, the indigeneousBankers played a very important role in lending money financing foreign trade and commerce. During the days of East India Company, it was turn over the agency houses to carry on the business. “The General Bank of India” was the first to join sector in the year 1786.The others that followed were the Bank of Hindustan and the Bengal bank. The bank of Hindustan is reported to have continued till 1906 while the other two failed in the meantime.
In the first half of the 19th century the East India Company established three banks:
1. Bank of Bengal (1809).
2. Bank of Bombay (1840).
3. Bank of Madras (1843.
These three banks are also known as Presidency Banks were independent units and functioned well. These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial Bank of India was established on 27th january1921, which started as private shareholders banks, mostly Europeans shareholders, with the passing of time Imperial bank was taken over by the newly constituted State bank of India act in1955.In 1865 Allahabad Bank was established and first time exclusively by Indians, Punjab National Bank Ltd. was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore. Between 1906 and 1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Indian Bank, and Bank of Mysore were set up. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935. On July, 1969, 14 major banks of India were nationalized and on 15th April, 1980 six more commercial private banks were also taken over by the government.
Reserve Bank of India
The Banking system is an integral sub-system of the financial system. It represents an important channel of collecting small savings from the households and lending it to the corporate sector. The Indian banking system has The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as the apex body from all matters relating to the banking system. It is the “Central Bank” of India and act as the banker to all other banks.
Functions of RBI:
• Currency issuing authority
• Banker to the government.
• Banker to other Bank.
• Framing of monetary policy.
• Exchange control.
• Custodian to foreign exchange and gold reserves.
• Development activities.
• Research and development in the banking sector.