DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL
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The aim of the project is to solve traffic congestion which is a severe problem in many modern cities all over the world.
To solve the problem, we have designed a framework for a dynamic and automatic traffic light control system and developed a simulation model with codes in to help build the system on hardware.
Generally, each traffic light on an intersection is assigned a constant green signal time.
It is possible to propose dynamic time-based coordination schemes where the green signal time of the traffic lights is assigned based on the present conditions of traffic.
The intelligent work which is done by traffic inspector will be perfectly done by the microcontroller in the circuit with the help of sensors and the program which is coded to the microcontroller.
Also we have a junction where three lights (green, amber and red) are arranged on all four sides. We have three pairs of sensors across the roads marking as low, medium and high density zones respectively.
There will be a infrared transmitter and infrared receiver opposite to each other. We will place sensors at some distance apart from another pair .
When vehicles are filled and cross the first pair of sensors, then there will be an obstacle between transmitter and receiver and this leads to a digital signal (low or high) and the microcontroller assumes that there is low density traffic.
A photo diode is a type of photo detector capable of converting light into either current or voltage depending upon the mode of operation. Photo diodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed or packaged with a window or a optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part.
A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in abridge arrangement to achieve full wave rectification. This is a widely used configuration, both with individual diodes wired as shown and with and single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally.
Thus from above theory we can conclude that using the method of density based control of traffic lights we can save a considerable amount of time and also we can prevent excessive traffic jams thus leading to smooth traffic flow.
In practice presently in India we are following time based control of traffic signals and we are experiencing a heavy traffic jams all over which in turn consumes lot of time and fuel. We hope these methods will be adopted as soon as possible so that the limitations we are experiencing with present method can be overcome.