DESIGN OF MONO-AXIS SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM USING MICROCONTROLLER BASED STEPPER MOTOR
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With the increasing threat of global warming and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves, many are adopting sustainable energy solutions .
Other than the hydro power, the wind etc., photovoltaic (solar) energies have higher potential to meet our energy demands.
The major advantage of a solar system is the enhanced reliability of the system.
To program the microcontroller for controlling the stepper motor.
To connect the stepper motor with the panel thereby enabling panel rotation.
To fix the mirrors on the panel for effective concentration of the radiation over the panel.
To store the generated energy in the battery, invert it and finally transfer it to the load.
The main objective of our project is to track the solar radiation and increase the intensity of the solar radiation by employing reflecting mirrors over the panel and thereby improve the efficiency of power generation.
In this, a solar panel is energized and the power thus generated is inverted and then fed to the load.
The microcontroller controls the rotation of the motor depending upon the output of the solar panel.
The solar panel receives sunlight along with the LDR
The panel is mounted and a stepper motor controlled by a microcontroller is connected to it.
The microcontroller receives the intensity of the sunlight in form of analog signal from LDR
When the intensity of the sunlight becomes less when the sun changes its position, the panel rotates with the help of stepper motor facing the sunlight based on the control signal received from the controller.
Then the battery is charged by the solar panel followed by inverted supply to the load
Most of the systems in operation use a separate DC/DC boost converter connected in parallel to the rectifier stage, to perform the MPPT control for each of the renewable energy power sources.
A simpler multi input structure has been suggested that combines the sources from the sun and the reflected radiation from the mirrors that are focused onto the panel.
There are many situations where signals and data need to be transferred from one subsystem to another within a piece of electronics equipment, without making a direct ohmic electrical connection.
Often this is because the source and destination are at very different voltage levels, like a microprocessor, which is operating from 5V DC but being used to control a triac that is switching 240V AC.
In such situations the link between the two must be an isolated one, to protect the microprocessor from over voltage damage.