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Todayâ„¢s world is digital world. Nowadays, in every field there is enormous
use of digital contents.Information handled on INTERNET and MULTIMEDIA
NETWORK SYSTEM is in digital form.The copying of digital content without
quality loss is not so difficult.Due to this,there are more chances of copying of
such digital information.So,there is great need of prohibiting such illegal
copyright of digital media.Digital watermarking(DWM) is the powerful solution
to this problem.Digital watermarking is nothing but the technology in which there
is embedding of various information in digital content which we have to protect
from illegal copying.This embedded information to protect the data is embedded
as watermark.Beyond the copyright protection,Digital watermarking is having some other applications as fingerprinting,owner identification etc.Digital water-
marks are of different types as robust,fragile,visible and invisible.Application is
depending upon these watermarks classifications.There are some requirements
of digital watermarks as integrity,robustness and complexity.
Digital documents i.e. documents created in digital media are having certain
Â¢ Efficient data storage,duplication,manipulation and transmission.
Â¢ Copying without loss.
Such digital documents consists of images,audio clips and videos etc.But due
to some delimits of digital documents,they become inefficient to use.These
delimits are as follows
Â¢ Illegal copying
Â¢ No copyright protection
Â¢ No ownership identification
The large use of networked multimedia system has created the need
of Copyright Protectionfor different digital medium as images,audio clips,
videos etc.The term Copyright Protection involves the authentification of
ownership and identification of illegal copies of digital media.Though digital
media provides various efficient facillities like distribution,reproduction and
manipulation of images,audio clips and videos,they increases illegal copying
of digital media.
The solution for this problem is to add the visible or invisible structure
to digital media which is to be protected from copyright. These structures are
known as Digital Watermarks and the process of adding digital watermarks
to digital media is known as Digital Watermarking.
Digital watermarking is created by inserting a digital signal or pattern into digital content. Digital watermarking is nothing but process of conveying information by imperceptiblly embedding it into digital media.The purpose of embedding the information depends upon application and need of user of digital media. Digital watermarking provides the solution for difficult problem of providing guarentee to organiser and consumer of digital content about their legal rights.Copyright protection for multimedia information is nothing but a golden key for multimedia industry.Digital watermarking is a technology that opens a new door for authors,producers,publishers and service providers for protection of their rights and interest in multimedia documents.
There are various techniques for prevention of illegal copying.They are described as follows
1. Encryption methods which includes use of public and private keys to
encode the data,so that image can decoded only with required key.
2. Site security methods which includes use of firewalls to access the data.
3. Using Thumbnail images.and the most popular and important
4. Digital watermarking which includes robust labelling of an image with
Information which is to be prevent from illegal copying and also use of image checksum or other techniques to detect manipulation of image data.
In general sense,Digital Watermarking means Author Signature.
Digital watermarking is the process of encoding hidden copyright info-
rmation in an image by making small modifications in itâ„¢s pixel content.In this case watermarking doesnâ„¢t restrict the accessing image information. The important function of watermarking is to remain present in data for proof of ownership.The use of digital watermarking is not restricted upto copyright
protection.Digital watermarking can also be used for owner identification to identify content of owner,fingerprinting to identify buyer of content,broadcast monitoring and authentification to determine whether the data is changed from itâ„¢s original form or not
Finally,the actual meaning of Digital watermarking technique is come
to know from following three point of views
1. Work=>A specific song,video,picture or specific copy of such.
2. Content=>Set of all possible works.
3. Watermarking=>The practise of imperceptiblly altering a work to embed
a message about that work.
The watermarking solution promise to protect your images by inserting text information and then tracking the images.Digital watermarking distinguishes digital copies and mark documents with ownerâ„¢s ID.There are many reasons to embed information in digital content using digital watermarking. The internet boom is one of the reasons.It has become very easy to connect to internet from home computers to obtain or provide various information using World Wide Web(WWW). All information handled on internet is in digital form.Such digital content can be copy such that new file is indistinguishable from original one.Then content can be reproduce in large quantities. .Digital watermarking protecting such illegal copying.A watermark discourage piracy and determines criminals of making illegal copies of digital media.
WHAT IS AND WHY TO USE DWM?
2.1 What is it?
Digital watermarking is an adaptation of the commonly used and well known
paper watermarks to the digital world.Digital watermarking describes methods
and technologies that allow to hide information.The hiding process has to be such that the modifications of the media are imperceptible.Digital watermarking is a
technology for embedding various types of information in digital content.In gene-
ral,information for protecting copyrights and providing the validity of data is embedded as watermark.Digital watermarking is relatively a new way of prote-
cting intellectual property However,theories and technologies behind it are comp-
uter based steganography,cryptography,spread spectrum communications and noise theory.
2.2Why to use it?
First important application come into mind is copyright protection of digital media.It is easy to duplicate digital data exactly without quality loss.Similar
to process in which artist signed their painting with a brush to claim their
copyrights,artist of today can watermark their work and hide some information say their name in the image.Hence,embedded watermark will allow to identify the owner of work.This concept is applicable to digital video and audio also.
Especially,distribution of digital audio over internet in MP3 format is currently a big problem.Digital watermarking may be useful to setup controlled
audio distribution and provide efficient means for copyright protection,usually
in collaboration with international registration bodies such as IDDN(Inter
Deposite Digital Number).
In addition with copyright protection,Digital watermarking is playing
a important role in many fields of applications such as broadcast monitoring,
owner identification,transaction tracking,proof of ownership,fingerprinting, content authentification,copy control,device control.Digital watermarks can also
serve as invisible labels and content link.For example,photo development labs
may insert a watermark into the picture to link the print to itâ„¢s negative.so, it is
becomes easy to find out negative of a print.All one has to do is to scan the print
and extract the information from negative.In a completely different scenario,the
digital watermarks may be used as a geometrical reference which may be useful
for programs such as Optical Character Recognition(OCR) software.The embe-
dded calibration watermark may improve the detection reliability of the OCR
software since it allows the determination of translation,rotation and scaling.
Digital watermarking also serves as a means of advertising within the
digital media.For instance,the user may download and view a digital image,use a
watermark reader to extract the digital signature,then acess a web based directo-
ry to find the companyâ„¢s name and up-to-date address,phone number and web and
e-mail address.Digital watermarks also serves the purposes of identifying quality
and assuring authenticity.A graphic or audio file bearing digital watermark can
inform the viewer or listener who owns to the item.
PROPERTIES AND CLASSIFICATION OF DWMs
For better activeness, watermark should be â€œperceptually invisible within host
media,statistically invisible to unauthorized removal,readily extracted by owner
of image,robust to accidental and intended signal distortion like filtering,compre-
ssion,resampling,retouching,crapping etc.For a digital watermark to be effective
for ownership,it must be robust,recoverable from a document,should provide the
original information embedded reliably and also removed by authorized users.
All these important properties of digital watermarks are described as-
=>The watermark should be robust such that it must be difficult to remove.The watermark should be robust to different attacks.
The robustness describes whether watermark can be reliably detected after
performing some media operations.
2. Perceptual transparency
=>This property describes that whether watermark is visible or invisible to human sensor organ.Perceptible water-
marks are visible to human while imperceptible are not.Imperceptible wate-
rmarks are such that content remains same after applying digital watermar-
=>Security property describes that how easy to remove a waterm-
ark.This is generally reffered to as attack on watermarking.Attack refers
to detection or modification of watermark.
=>This is important property which is to be consider in real
time applications like video.Complexity property is concerned with amount
of effort needed to extract or retrieve the watermark from content.
=>Capacity property of digital watermarks refers to amount of information that can be embedded within the content.The important point is that more data is used in watermark,watermark will become less robust.
In addition to these properties,watermarks are having some extra properties as unambiguity,tamper resistance,inseperable from the works and
able to undergo some transformation as works.
Digital watermarks are classified according to their applications. The watermarks are classified as perceptible watermarks and imperceptible watermarks, robust and fragile, public and private. This classification of watermarks is broadly described in following sections.
1. Perceptible watermarks and imperceptible watermarks=>
Perceptible watermarks are visible to human eye while imperceptible
watermarks are invisible.The perceptible watermarks are useful for primary
application i.e. for statement ownership or authorship.So for this reason it should
be visible. .On the other hand imperceptible watermarks are useful for complex
applications such as document identification in which content being watermarked
must appear in unchanged form Examples of visible(perceptible) watermarks are
logos on TV,IBMâ„¢s watermark and that of invisible(imperceptible) watermarks are ATT,NEC/MIT,UU etc.
Perceptible watermarks i.e. visible one are extension of the concept of logos.They are applicable to images only.These watermarks are embedded into
image.They are applicable in maps,graphics and software user interface.Imperce-
ptible watermarks i.e.invisible one remains hidden in the content.They can be
detectrd only by authorized agency.These watermarks are useful for content or
author authentication and for detecting unauthorized copier.
2. Robust watermarks and fragile watermarks=>
Robust or fragile is nothing but degree to which watermarks can withstand any modifications of any types caused due to the transmission or lossy
compression.Perceptible watermarks are more robust in nature than imperceptib-
le one.But meaning of this is not that imperceptible watermarks are fragile one.
Robust watermarks are those watermarks which are difficult to remove
from the object in which they are embedded.Fragile watermarks are those water-
marks which can be easily destroyed by any attempt to tamper with them.Fragile
watermarks are destroyed by data manipulation.
3. Private watermarks and public watermarks=>
Private watermarks requires atleast original data to recover watermark
information Public watermarks requires neither original data nor embedded
watermarks to recover watermark information.Private watermarks are also known
as secure watermarks.To read or retrieve private watermark,it is necessary to have
secret key.Public watermark can be read or retrieve by anyone using specialized
algorithm.In this sense public watermarks are not secure.Public watermarks are
useful for carrying IPR information.They are good alternatives to labels.
WORKING OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING
The structure of typical Digital watermarking system consists of mainly three
parts viz watermark insertion unit,watermark extraction unit and watermark
detection unit.Thus process of digital watermarking technique includes three
processes i.e. watermark insertion process,watermark extraction process and
watermark detection process.The watermark insertion unit provides the generic approach to watermarking any digital media.
FIGURE NO.1 GENERIC WATERMARKING SYSTEM
The generic approach of watermarking system is shown in figure no.1.
The generic approach consists of watermark embedder and watermark detector.
The watermark embedder is having two inputs i.e.cover work and watermark
message and itâ„¢s output is watermarked work which is input to watermark
detector.Then after performing some operations detector gives detected watrmark
Inputs to insertion unit are original image(i.e.any digital content),the
watermark and user key to obtain watermarked image.The output of insertion
unit is watermarked object.The input to extraction unit consits of watermarked image and key used during insertion unit If,object has not been altered,since it
was marked and correct key is used,output of extraction unit is watermark.If, the
object has been altered or wrong key is used,the extraction procedure outputs an
FIGURE NO.2 WORKING PHASES OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING
The inputs to detection units are watermarked object(may be alter),
the watermark that was inserted into object and the key.The detection process then indicates whether the object contains a mark that is close to the original
watermark.The meaning of close depends on the type of alterations that a marked object might undergo the course of normal use.
Watermark inserion unit integrates the input image and watermark to
form output watermarked image.watermark extraction uncovers the watermark in
watermarked images,a technique usually applicable in verification watermarks.
Watermark detection detects presence of ID .e.g. in robust watermarks presence of specified ID (watermarks) can be detected using predefined threshold;i.e.
answering to question either YES or NO indicates whether ID is present or not.
FIGURE NO.3 GENERAL DIGITAL WATERMARKING PROCESS.
Figure no.3 shows what actual process is carried out during embedding and extr-
action process.Original data and watermark on submitting to embedding alorithm
gives watermarked data.During extraction,this watermarked data is then given to
extraction algorithm gives extracted watermark.
RELATIVE CONCEPTS AND ATTACKS
5.1 Relavent terms=>
Digital watermarking, steganography, information hiding, cryptography are closely related concepts. In each technique, a digital signal or pattern is inserted into, onto, before or after digital document. There are some difference between working principle of these techniques and their meanings.
5.1.1 Information hiding=>
Information hiding is also called as ËœData hidingâ„¢. The hiding is concerned with
making information imperceptible or keeping itâ„¢s existence secrete.Information
hiding means encompassing wide range of problems beyond that of embedding
messages in content.Information hiding deals with communication security.It consists of encryption and traffic security.Encryption protects the content during
distribution over an open network such as internet.The traffic security is related to
concealing itâ„¢s sender,itâ„¢s receiver.Thus,here an attempt is made to have secrete
communication between each two parties where existence is unknown to attacker.
It is nothing but sub-discipline of information hiding. Here secrete information is
hidden in harmless message,which is also known as cover message.steganography
is used to avoid drawing suspictions to transmission of hidden message so as to
remain undetected.The idea behind this is that to hide message in envolope or
wrapper.In steganography,existence of hidden message in content is not known
This technique is related with data protection. It is commonly used for protecting
digital information.Once,data is decrypted,it canâ„¢t remain protected for long time
i.e. there may be more chances of illegal copying of this data.So, there is great need of cryptography technique.Watermarking is special case of cryptography.
Cryptography involves some suitable and complicated techniques so that no
unauthorized user is allowed to access the data to protect.Authorisation of user is
checked by certain keys or signature.
Watermarking is technology derived from steganography. It is also sub-discipline
of information hiding.Watermarking is process of embedding secrete and robust
idintifier inside audio,video content.The purpose of watermarking is to establish
the copyright of content creator.In this sense watermarks are also known as the hidden copyright messages.watermarking secures the content,thus any attempt to modify the content can be easily detected.The watermarking can trace the path followed by content in distribution chain.This helps in tracing malicious users.
Due to some reasons, there is need of adding, altering or removing false
watermarks.Attacks on watermarks may be accidental or intentional.Accidenatal
attcks may caused due to the standard image processing or due to the compression
procedures.Intentional attacks includes cryptanalysis,steganalysis,image process-
ing techniques or other attempts to overwrite or remove existing watermarks.
Folloewing are the methods of attacks vary according to robustness and
5.2.1 Mosaic attack=>
Mosaic attack is the method in which pictures are displayed so as to confuse watermark-searching program, known as Web Crawler. Mosaic is created by
subdividing the original image into randomly sized small images and displaying the resulting image on webpage.
FIGURE NO.4 IMAGE IS CUT INTO PIECES TO CONFUSE WEB CRAWLER
Figure no.1 shows the example of mosaic schemes.The aim is to confuse the web
crawler into thinking that there is no watermark within the picture because it has
been sub divided into smaller separate pictures.This form of attack becomes to a
large degree obsolete due to new improved methods of watermarking and more
intelligent web crawlers.
5.2.2 Geometric attack=>
Geometric attack is related to geometric properties of data.It is concerned with images,documents and audio files.This attack is futher classified as-
It involves the attacker in the area of located watermark if imperceptible and then
Removing the mark by cropping or digital editing.
In this attack, attacker attempts to make some uniform distortive changes in the images such that mark becomes unrecognizable.
These two watermark attacks are usually performed on robust watermark.
5.2.3 Stirmark attack=>
Stirmark is generic tool developed for simple robustness techniques of image
Marking algorithms and steganographic techniques.In itâ„¢s simplest version,
stirmark simulates resampling process in which it introduces same kind of errors
into an image to print it on high quality printer and scanning it again with high quality scanner.It includes minor geometric distortion.
This testing tool is an effective program to remove fairly robust watermarks in images and become a form of attack on itâ„¢s own.
5.2.4 Forgery attack=>
Forgery attack is also known as ËœAdditive attackâ„¢ in some cases. Forgery attack
include the attacker who can add his or her own watermark overlaying the original image and marking the content as their own.
5.2.5 Inversion attack=>
Inversion watermark render the watermark information ambiguous.Ihe idea behind the invesion attack that attacker who receives watermarked data can claim
that data contains his watermark also by declaring part of data as his watermark.
The attacker can easily generate the original data by substracting the claimed watermark.
It is mostlly associated with cryptography. It is a method in which attacker attempts to find the decryption key for an encrypted pieces of information so that
it can be made useful again.
Attacker can remove licensing watermark that decrypts tha data ,attacker
would use cryptanalysis to find decryption key so that data can use in decrtpted form free from itâ„¢s watermark.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DWM
6.1 Advantages of digital watermarking=>
The field of digital watermarking is not restricted to digital images. This technique
time and frequency masking properties of human ear to conceal the watermark and make it unaudible.
There are some benefits of this technique as-
Â¢ Uniquely identifies author of copyrighted works.
Â¢ Robust design of digital waetrmark withstand pirating attacks.
Â¢ Embedding watermark is easy.
Â¢ Implementation on PC platform is possible.
There are some military and civilian applications of digital watermarking also.
Â¢ Intelligence activities.
Â¢ Traitor tracing.
Â¢ Image tampering detection.
Â¢ Copyright protection of each digital media in hardcopy or on internet.
Â¢ Intelligent web browsers.
Â¢ Law enforcement for chain of evidence.
Some special watermarking technique uses color separation.So,watermarks
appears in only one of the color bands.therefore,watermarks becomes strongly
invisible.whenever,the colors are separated from printing then watermarks becones visible.This approach is advantageous to journaliststo inspect digital
pictures from a photo stockhouse before buying an un-watermarked versions.
There is an important advantage of invisible fragile watermarks.With such
invisible fragile watermarks,implementation of web based image authentication
This web based authentication includes watermark embedding and authentication
system.In case of watermark embedding system,it is installed in server as application software that any authorized user who access to server can generate
watermark image.The distribution can be done through any network as FTP,
e-mail etc.Once,image is distributed to externally,client can get authentification
web page to get verification of images.
Digital watermarking techniques is having advantages as we seen earlier.
It also have some limits also.
6.2 Disadvantages of digital watermarking =>
Digital watermarking is recent research field,therefore itâ„¢s intrinsic limitations are not understood yet.The blind watermarking algorithm which is
really robust is not in existence today. Another disadvantage is that owner can
erase the watermark.By knowing the exact content of watermark and algorithms to enbed and retrieve it. It is always possible to make it unreadable without any significant degradation of the data.Again it is not clear that.if this drawback will
be got around in future,in the meantime,the possibility of erasing the watermark or itâ„¢s part ,once itâ„¢s content is known must be taken into account when designing
a copyright protection system. As a matter of fact,if any one is allow to read the watermark,then anyone can erase it by knowing the embedding algorithm.In some
researches,the conclusion comes that not all watermarking techniques will be useful in resolving ownership disputes.Watermarking doesnâ„¢t prevent image copying as much as it simply makes copied images easier to track down and detect ownership.
Some watermarks vanish if someone manipulates the image in a program like photoshop.The watermarks have been known to weaken or disappear by the time the images were processed for the Internet. Resizing, compressing and converting images from one file type to another may add noise to an image or diminish its watermark in such a manner that the watermark becomes unreadable.
DIGITAL WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES
Digital watermarking techniques is nothing but What are the techniques to put
digital watermarks onto the digital media.There are three techniques viz image
domain and transform domain.These techniques are can be described in detail
7.1 Image domain encoding=>
This technique of image watermarking is also known as Least Significant Bit
(LSB).This technique stores the large information in an image without reducing
the quality of image.Image domain tools uses bit wise methods to encode the watermark. Using encryption and compression,a file that is almost as big as image can be stored inside it with minimal distortion.LSB works by reducing the number of colors used by image itself and uses rest of palette to encode the
information using slight variations of the color.If the colors in an image are less,
then more information can be stored without reducing the quality.This method is
useful to store large data but message can be destroyed by altering it.
7.2 Transform domain=>
The second common method is Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) and falls under Transform Domain.It uses manipulation of image algorithms and image
transformation.This method stores small image throughout the image.
This method uses JPEG images. It alters the algorithm used to record the difference between the pixels,which is basis for JPEG encoding.If you use
more bits for encoding the watermark,either the image is larger or low quality
will be there. Some algorithms used in this method encode the message so well that the image can be printed out, scanned back in, and the copyright can still be read.
A watermark is processed and placed over the original, so that if a difference file is made of the two, the watermark stands out to the human eye. . Dithering the mask can also make the alteration of the photo less noticable, as it removes sharp edges of change. This alters the image characteristics rather than bits, so it could be considered to fall under the Transform Domain.
Text watermarks can be of three basic kinds: text line coding, which is when the text lines of a certain document page are shifted up or down very slightly that is cannot be noticed; Word space coding, which is when the spacing between words in a line of justified text is altered and; Character coding, which is when a feature such as the endline at the top of a letter is extended so that the altered text goes unnoticed.
In the case of watermarking video, it is difficult to do because it is a sequence of images, and would be time consuming to process each frame. You could process only every other frame, but then the watermark could be destroyed by eliminating or modifying every second frame, and overall quality would not be overly damaged. Therefore it is better to use the Transform Domain encoding methods.
FUTURE OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING
The field of digital watermarking is still evolving and is attracting a lot of research interest. The watermarking problem is inherently more difficult that the problem of encryption, since it is easier to execute a successful attack on a watermark. In cryptography, a successful attack often requires deciphering an enciphered message. In the case of digital watermarking, merely destroying the watermark, usually by slightly distorting the medium containing it, is a successful attack, even if one cannot decipher or detect any hidden message contained in the medium.The enormous popularity of the World Wide Web in the early 1990's demonstrated the commercial potential of offering multimedia resources through the digital networks. Since commercial interests seek to use the digital networks to offer digital media for profit, they have a strong interest in protecting their ownership rights.
Digital watermarking has been proposed as one way to protect such interests. Though much research remains before watermarking systems become robust and widely available, there is much promise that they will contribute significantly to the protection of proprietary interests of electronic media. Collateral technology will also be necessary to automate the process of authentication, non-repudiable transmission and validation. An exhaustive list of watermarking applications is of course impossible. However, it is interesting to note the increasing interest in fragile watermarking technologies. Especially applications related to copy
protection of bills with digital watermarks. Various companies have projects in this direction solutions will soon be available. In addition to technological developments, marketing and business issues are extremely important and require in-depth analysis and strategic planing. It is very important to prepare the industry to the usage of digital watermarks and and it is very likely that fully functioning to convince them of the added value their products can gain if they employ digital watermarking technologies.
APPLIACATIONS OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING
The technique Digital Watermarking is the recent research in the field of
multimedia and internet copyright protection field.There are various applications
of digital watermarking as broadcast monitoring,owner identification,proof of
ownership,transaction tracking,content authentication,copy control,device
control and so on.Out of these,some important applications are described as-
9.1 Broadcast monitoring=>
This application identifies that when and where works are broadcast by recognizing watermarks embedded in these works.There are variety of tech-
nologies to monitor playback of sound recording on broadcast.The digital water-
marking is alternative to thsese technologies due to itâ„¢s reliable automated detection.A single PC based monitoring station can continuously monitor to 16
channels over 24 hours with no human interaction.Resulted monitoring is assembled at central server and is now available to interestrd one.The system can
distinguish between identical versions of songs,which are watermarked for different distribution channel.Such system requires Monitoring infrastructure and
watermarks to be present in content.Watermarking video or music is planned by
all major entertainment componies possessing closed networks.
According to the thinking of major music companies and major video studios,
encoding happens at mastering level of sound recording.In such downstream,
transactional watermarks are also considered.Each song is assigned with unique
ID from the identifier database.After completion of all mastering processes,ID is
encoded in sound recording.To enhance encoding of audio or video recordings
requiring special processing,the human-assisted watermark key is available.
9.3 Copy and playback control=>
The data carried out by watermark may contain information about copy and display permissions.We can add a secure module into copy or playback equipment to automatically extract the permission information and block further
processing if required.This approach is being taken in Digital Video Disc(DVD).
9.4 Content authentication=>
The content authentication is nothing but embedding the signal information in
Content.This signature then can be checked to verify that it has not been alter.
By watermarks,digital signatures can be embedded into the work and any
modification to the work can be detected.
The large need of networked multimedia system has created the need of
COPYRIGHT PROTECTION.It is very important to protect intellectual
properties of digital media.Internet playing an important role of digital data
transfer.Digital watermarking is the great solution of the problem of how to
protect copyright. Digital watermarking is the solution for the protection of legal rights of digital content owner and customer.
 F,Y.Daun,I.King,A SHORT SUMMARY OF DIGITAL WATERMARK-
ING TECHNIQUES FOR MULTIMEDIA DATA,Department of computer science engineering,The Chinese University of Hong-Kong.Shatin,N.T.Hong-
 Fernando PÃ‚Â´ erez-GonzÃ‚Â´ alez and Juan R. HernÃ‚Â´ andez, A TUTORIAL ON DIGITAL WATERMARKING, Dept. TecnologÃ‚Â´ÃƒÂ½as de las Comunicaciones,
ETSI Telecom., Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo, Spain.
 Michael Gaylord,COMPONENTS OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING AND PROTECTION OF OWNERSHIP,University of cape down ,department
of computer science.
 Onur Mutlu,AN OVERVIEW OF IMAGE WATERMARKING ALGORITHMS, EE 371R Digital Image Processing.
 Elizabeth Ferrili,Matthew moyer,A SURVEY OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SR.NO. CONTENTS Page No.
1. INTRODUCTION 04
2. WHAT IS AND WHY TO USE DWM? 07
2.1 WHAT IS IT? 07
2.2 WHY TO USE IT? 08
3. PROPERTIES AND CLASSIFICATION OF DWM 09
3.1 PROPERTIES 09
3.2 CLASSIFICATION 10
4. WORKING OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING 11
5. RELATIVE CONCEPTS AND ATTACKS 15
5.1 RELAVENT TERMS 15
5.1.1 INFORMATION HIDING 15
5.1.2 STEGANOGRAPHY 15
5.1.3 CRYPTOGRAPHY 16
5.1.4 WATERMARKING 16
5.2 ATTACKS 16
5.2.1 MOSAIC ATTACK 17
5.2.2 GEOMETRIC ATTACK 18
5.2.3 STIRMARK ATTACK 18
5.2.4 FORGERY ATTACK 19
5.2.5 INVERSION ATTACK 19
5.2.6 CRYPTANALYSIS 19
6. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DWM 20
6.1 ADVANTAGES 20
6.2 DISADVANTAGES 21
7. DIGITAL WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES 23
7.1 IMAGE DOMAIN ENCODING 23
7.2 TRANSFER DOMAIN 23
7.3 MASKING 24
8. FUTURE OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING 25
9. APPLICATIONS OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING. 27
9.1 BROADCAST MONITORING 27
9.2 ENCODING 27
9.3 COPY AND PLAYBACK CONTROL 27
9.4 CONTENT AUTHENTICATION 28