ENVIRONMENTAL polution.ppt (Size: 1.16 MB / Downloads: 540)
Definition Of Environmental Pollution:
Environmental pollution is “the contamination of the physical and
biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely
Definition Of Pollution:
“Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or that damage the environment” which can come “in the form of chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat or light”.
Introduction to Environmental Pollution :
Although pollution had been known to exist for a very long time (at least since people started using fire thousands of years ago), it had seen the growth of truly global proportions only since the onset of the industrial revolution during the 19th century.
The industrial revolution brought with it technological progress such as discovery of oil and its virtually universal use throughout different industries.
Technological progress facilitated by super efficiency of capitalist business practices (division of labour – cheaper production costs – overproduction – overconsumption – overpollution) had probably become one of the main causes of serious deterioration of natural resources.
At the same time, of course, development of natural sciences led to the better understanding of negative effects produced by pollution on the environment.
Types Of Environmental Pollution
There are three major types of environmental pollution:
Soil pollution (contamination)
Some of the most important air pollutants are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and airborne particles, with radioactive pollutants probably among the most destructive ones (specifically when produced by nuclear explosions).
Water pollutants include insecticides and herbicides, food processing waste, pollutants from livestock operations, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), heavy metals, chemical waste and others.
Some soil pollutants are: hydrocarbons, solvents and heavy metals.
Source Of Environmental Pollution
How can we control environmental pollution?
It's clear that fossil fuels are among the biggest sources of pollution. We need to find alternative renewable sources of energy which can replace fossil fuels in the future.
Green investment provides a great platform to explore and develop new and clean sources of energy such as solar electricity.
Building your own solar panels and using diy solar energy systems to meet at least part of your home electricity needs is another emerging opportunity for diy enthusiasts. This can really make a positive difference to the environment and reduce current pollution levels.
Environmental Pollution Effects on Humans, Other Animals & Plants
General Environmental Pollution Effects
Miguel A. Santos identifies 3 different types of response evoked by the environment to different pollution concentrations:
In the linear effect, environmental damage increases linearly with pollution concentrations. In other words, “ the total damage or risk is directly proportional to the accumulated exposure”.
This effect occurs with radioactive substances as well as mercury, lead, cadmium and asbestos.
In the greater-than-linear effect, environmental damage increases with an increase in pollution concentrations but at a decreasing rate. This means that, as pollution concentrations continue to increase the environmental damage will continue to decrease.
Effect Of Air Pollution
Effect Of Water Pollution
Environmental Pollution Effects on Animals
Acid rain (formed in the air) destroys fish life in lakes and streams
Excessive ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun through the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere which is eroded by some air pollutants, may cause skin cancer in wildlife
Ozone in the lower atmosphere may damage lung tissues of animals
Nutrient pollution (nitrogen, phosphates etc) causes overgrowth of toxic algae eaten by other aquatic animals, and may cause death; nutrient pollution can also cause outbreaks of fish diseases
Chemical contamination can cause declines in frog biodiversity and tadpole mass
Oil pollution (as part of chemical contamination) can negatively affect development of marine organisms, increase susceptibility to disease and affect reproductive processes can also cause gastrointestinal irritation, liver and kidney damage, and damage to the nervous system
Mercury in water can cause abnormal behavior, slower growth and development, reduced reproduction, and death
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may cause declines, deformities and death of fish life
Too much sodium chloride (ordinary salt) in water may kill animals
Environmental Pollution Effects on Trees and Plants
Acid rain can kill trees, destroy the leaves of plants, can infiltrate soil by making it unsuitable for purposes of nutrition and habitation
Ozone holes in the upper atmosphere can allow excessive ultraviolet radiation from the sun to enter the Earth causing damage to trees and plants
Ozone in the lower atmosphere can prevent plant respiration by blocking stomata (openings in leaves) and negatively affecting plants’ photosynthesis rates which will stunt plant growth; ozone can also decay plant cells directly by entering stomata
May disrupt photosynthesis in aquatic plants and thus affecting ecosystems that depend on these plants (27)
Terrestrial and aquatic plants may absorb pollutants from water (as their main nutrient source) and pass them up the food chain to consumer animals and humans
Environmental Pollution - Conclusion
Environmental pollution is causing a lot of distress not only to humans but also animals, driving many animal species to endangerment and even extinction.