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Q1. Discuss any case study of radioactive pollution.
A. Turkey Point Nuclear Power Generating Station, South Florida - Case Study.
Turkey Point nuclear power station is situated on the Atlantic coast of Florida, and serves more than 7 million people in the Florida area. This power station removes water from Biscayne Bay then passes it through the condensers. The output water with an increased temperature of up to 15°C above ambient is then pumped back into the receiving water. An area of nearly 40 hectares is affected by cooling water discharged from this power station.
The cooling water at Turkey Point is discharged into a shallow soft-bottomed area which is dominated by turtle grass, Thalassic.
Q2. Discuss solid base management with case study.
A. Designing a solid base for further growth and profitability:-
Background – The Client
Our Dutch client is part of an international company that operates department stores and financial services providers worldwide.
Case for Change – The Challenge
In the Netherlands the organization has grown rapidly during its first years of existence, and gained a leading position in the market with a strong focus on volume. However, its margins are under pressure and the complexity of its product / channel structure has grown accordingly. Its large customer base is strongly underutilized: many customers are touched without adding value. In addition, high operational costs prevent a sustainable future with further growth and profitability.
Q3. What do you understand by hot spots biodiversity? Name two hot spots in India.
A. A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.
The concept of biodiversity hotspots was originated by Norman Myers in two articles in “The Environmentalist” (1988 & 1990), revised after thorough analysis by Myers and others in “Hotspots: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions”.
To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers 2000 edition of the hotspot-map, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation. Around the world, at least 25 areas qualify under this definition, with nine others possible candidates. These sites support nearly 60% of the world's plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, with a very high share of endemic species.
Q4. Write short note on biomagnifications with case study.
Tendency of organisms to accumulate certain chemicals to a concentration larger than that occurring in their inorganic, nonliving environment, such as soil or water, or in the case of animals, larger than in their food.
Biomagnification - Biomagnificaiton Of Some Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as the insecticides DDT, DDD, dieldrin, and methoxychlor, the dielectric fluids known as PCBs, and the chlorinated dioxin, TCDD, have a very sparse solubility in water. As a result, these chemicals cannot be "diluted" into this ubiquitous solvent, which is so abundant on the surface of Earth and in organisms. Therefore, even situations considered to be highly contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons have very small concentrations of these chemicals in water, typically less than 1 ppb, and in the case of the dioxin TCDD smaller than 1 ppt (i.e., 0.001 ppb). However, chlorinated hydrocarbons are highly soluble in lipids. Because most lipids within ecosystems occur in biological tissues, the chlorinated hydrocarbons have a strong affinity for living organisms, and they tend to biomagnify by many orders of magnitude from vanishingly small aqueous concentrations.