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FUEL FROM PLASTIC WASTE PPT
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for more details on 'FUEL FROM PLASTIC WASTE' , please go through the following thread

http://project-seminars.com/Thread-fuel-...ull-report
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Please provide more information
Post: #4
you can refer these page details of "FUEL FROM PLASTIC WASTE PPT" bellow link...


http://project-seminars.com/Thread-fuel-...1#pid16811

http://www.sciencedirectscience

http://biodegradableplastics.wordpress20...tic-waste/

http://www.indiacarinfobank/Plastic_fuel.asp

http://www.tradekeyselloffer_view/id/828854.htm
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pls send me PPT for Fuel from Plastic Waste
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FUEL FROM PLASTIC WASTE


.docx  FUEL FROM PLASTIC WASTE.docx (Size: 80.17 KB / Downloads: 45)
ABSTRACT

The term "plastic" covers a wide range of synthetic polymer materials. What they have in common is that they are all made by joining together or "polymerizing" abunch of molecules (monomers). There are two main families of plastics, thermosetting and thermoplastics.
Many may not realize throwing away plastic is throwing away a ready fuel source. Plastic is primarily petroleum and burns with high efficiency. Plastics are commonly made from fossil fuels which is usually an irreversible process, process have been developed which recycles plastic waste back into oil. ThermoFuel technology is used to convert Waste Plastic into Liquid Fuel. ThermoFuel is a ten year old commercially proven technology with nine operational plants in Japan.

INTRODUCTION

Plastics are polymeric materials, a material built up from long repeating chains of molecules. Polymers such as rubber occur naturally, but it wasn't until the development of synthetic polymers around 1910 that the polymers tailored to the needs of the engineer first started to appear. One of the first commercial plastics developed was Bakelite and was used for the casing of early radios. Because the early plastics were not completely chemically stable, they gained a reputation for being cheap and unreliable. However, advances in plastic technology since then, mean that plastics are a very important and reliable class of materials for product design. Plastic is a marvel of polymer chemistry, plastics have become an indispensable part of our daily life. But repeated reprocessing of plastic waste, and its disposal cause environmental problems, pose health hazards, in addition to being a public nuisance.

WHAT ARE PLASTICS?
The term "plastic" covers a wide range of synthetic polymer materials. What they have in common is that they are all made by joining together or "polymerizing" abunch of molecules (monomers). There are two main families of plastics, thermosetting and thermoplastics.

CONVERTING WASTE PLASTIC INTO LIQUID FUEL

Many may not realize throwing away plastic is throwing away a ready fuel source. Plastic is primarily petroleum and burns with high efficiency. Plastics are commonly made from fossil fuels which is usually an irreversible process, process have been developed which recycles plastic waste back into oil. ThermoFuel technology is used to convert Waste Plastic into Liquid Fuel. ThermoFuel is a ten year old commercially proven technology with nine operational plants in Japan. Thermofuel is a process where scrap and waste plastics are converted into synthetic fuel. The system uses liquefaction, pyrolysis and the catalytic breakdown of plastics. The system can handle almost all the plastic that is currently being sent to landfills. A major advantage of the process is its ability to handle unsorted, unwashed plastic and its extremely high efficiency. A ThermoFuel plant can produce up to 9,500 liter of high-grade synthetic fuel from 10 tonnes of waste plastics, with systems ranging from 10 to 20 tonnes per day. This means that heavily contaminated plastics can be processed without difficulty.

STRUCTURE OF THE SYSTEM

The system consists of stock in feed system, pyrolysis gasification chamber, catalytic converter, condensers, centrifuge, oil recovery line, off-gas cleaning, and adulterant removal. Waste plastics are loaded via a hot-melt in feed system directly into main pyrolysis chamber. When the chamber temperature is raised, agitation commences to even the temperature and homogenize the feed stocks. Pyrolysis then commences to the point of product gasification. Non-plastic materials fall to the bottom of the chamber. The gas goes through the (patented) catalytic converter and is converted into the distillate fractions by the catalytic cracking process. The distillate then passes into the recovery tank after cooling in the condensers. From the recovery tank, the product is sent to a centrifuge to remove contaminants such as water or carbon. The cleaned distillate is then pumped to the reserve tank, then to the storage
tanks.

PYROLYSIS

The heart of the pyrolysis system is the prime chamber, which performs the essential functions of homogenization, controlled decomposition and out gassing in a single process. The process requires minimal maintenance apart from carbon residue removal, and produces consistent quality distillate from mixed and low-grade plastic waste. The key to an efficient pyrolysis process is to ensure the plastic is heated uniformly and rapidly. If temperature gradients develop in the molten plastic mass then different degrees of cracking will occur and products with a wide distribution of chain lengths will be formed. Pyrolysis is a process of thermal degradation in the absence of oxygen. Plastic waste is continuously treated in a cylindrical chamber and the pyrolytic gases condensed in a specially-designed condenser system to yield a hydrocarbon distillate comprising straight and branched chain aliphatics, cyclic aliphatics and aromatic hydrocarbons. The resulting mixture is essentially equivalent to petroleum distillate. The plastic is pyrolised at 370ºC-420ºC and the pyrolysis gases are condensed in a 2- stage condenser to give a low sulphur content distillate.
Post: #7
FUEL FROM WASTE PLASTICS


.pdf  FUEL FROM WASTE PLASTICS.pdf (Size: 1 MB / Downloads: 64)
INTRODUCTION

Plastics are polymeric materials, a material built up from long repeating chains of molecules. Polymers such as rubber occur naturally, but it wasn't until the development of synthetic polymers around 1910 that the polymers tailored to the needs of the engineer first started to appear. One of the first commercial plastics developed was Bakelite and was used for the casing of early radios. Because the early plastics were not completely chemically stable, they gained a reputation for being cheap and unreliable. However, advances in plastic technology since then, mean that plastics are a very important and reliable class of materials for product design.

WHAT ARE PLASTICS?

The term "plastic" covers a wide range of synthetic polymer materials. What they have in common is that they are all made by joining together or "polymerizing" A Bunch of molecules (monomers). There are two main families of plastics, Thermosetting and thermoplastics.
Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semi synthetic organic amorphous solid materials used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs. Monomers of Plastic are either natural or synthetic organic compounds.

HISTORY

The first human-made plastic was invented by Alexander Parkes in 1855 [7]; he called this plastic Parkesine (later called celluloid). The development of plastics has come from the use of natural plastic materials (e.g., chewing gum, shellac) to the use of chemically modified natural materials (e.g., rubber, nitrocellulose, collagen, galalite) and finally to completely synthetic molecules (e.g., Bakelite, epoxy, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene).

Environmental issues

Plastics are durable and degrade very slowly; the molecular bonds that make plastic so durable make it equally resistant to natural processes of degradation. Since the 1950s, one billion tons of plastic has been discarded and may persist for hundreds or even thousands of years. In some cases, burning plastic can release toxic fumes. Burning the plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) may create dioxin. Also, the manufacturing of plastics often creates large quantities of chemical pollutants.
Prior to the ban on the use of CFCs in extrusion of polystyrene (and general use, except in life-critical fire suppression systems; see Montreal Protocol), the production of polystyrene contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer; however, non-CFCs are currently used in the extrusion process.

Biodegradable (Compostable) plastics

Research has been done on biodegradable plastics that break down with exposure to sunlight (e.g., ultra-violet radiation), water or dampness, bacteria, enzymes, wind abrasion and some instances rodent pest or insect attack are also included as forms of biodegradation or environmental degradation. It is clear some of these modes of degradation will only work if the plastic is exposed at the surface, while other modes will only be effective if certain conditions exist in landfill or composting systems. Starch powder has been mixed with plastic as a filler to allow it to degrade more easily, but it still does not lead to complete breakdown of the plastic. Some researchers have actually genetically engineered bacteria that synthesize a completely biodegradable plastic, but this material, such as Biopol, is expensive at present. The German chemical company BASF makes Ecoflex, fully biodegradable polyester for food packaging applications.

Price, Environment, And The Future

The biggest threat to the conventional plastics industry is most likely to be environmental concerns, including the release of toxic pollutants, greenhouse gas, litter, biodegradable and non-biodegradable landfill impact as a result of the production and disposal of petroleum and petroleum-based plastics. Of particular concern has been the recent accumulation of enormous quantities of plastic trash in ocean gyres.
For decades one of the great appeals of plastics has been their low price. Yet in recent years the cost of plastics has been rising dramatically. A major cause is the sharply rising cost of petroleum, the raw material that is chemically altered to form commercial plastics.
Post: #8
to get information about the topic fuels from plastic wastes full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

http://project-seminars.com/Thread-fuel-...ull-report

http://project-seminars.com/Thread-fuel-...ort?page=3
 

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