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hydrogen gas by its Electrolysis
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.docx  1458551712-5.REPORT2.docx (Size: 2.17 MB / Downloads: 4)



INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, as the environment are becoming more and more contaminated because of the increasing carbon dio
xide and pollutants an immediate action must be taken. This project tries to overcome this problem by showing the pros and corns of using “hydrogen gas by its Electrolysis”. It deals with the use of hydrogen gas instead of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) for the purpose of cooking.
Alternate fuel is important and it should be fossil one. Compare to other kinds of fuel around the world, water is one of the free resources and by applying the technique, it can be converted into hydrogen with oxygen, its chemical term is HHO and in general “free energy”. It is cheaper, safer, tremendous explosive and never pollutes the atmosphere.
Before burning of Hydrogen, which is a lightest gas with one proton and one electron and more efficient fuel three times of the explosive power when camper to fuel gas and five times than petroleum gas. Actually, the hydrogen requires little bit of energy of ignition to produce wide level of tremendous flammable temperature in the speed of lighting and there is no chance to compare with other fuel in this world.
Here hydrogen gas is produced by alkaline electrolysis process. From that process depends the amount of DC supply and selection of electrodes. There is no possible of storage pure hydrogen gas in simple tanks but can be store hydrogen gas with oxygen in low pressure storage bags. Hydrogen gas is produced from the water. It was cheap and easily available source. This technique produces clean energy without emission of pollution by utilizing electricity.

CHAPTER-2
ALKALINE ELECTROLYSIS PRINCIPLE
When a water molecule passes through electrochemical process water molecules spilt in hydrogen and oxygen gases, this process is called water electrolysis. Electricity is used for the splitting the hydrogen and oxygen into their gaseous phase. This technique produces clean energy without emission of pollution by utilizing electricity. For water electrolysis the energy is required as electrical energy from a DC power source.




1 CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Cathode Reaction :
4H2O + 4e(-) ==> 2H2 + 4OH(-)
Anode Reaction :
2H2O ==> O2 + 4H(+) + 4 e(-)
The overall cell reaction is :
6H2O ==> 2H2 + O2 + 4H(+) +4OH(-)
CHAPTER-3
LITERATURE REVIEW
In 1802, Sir Humphrey Davy created the first simple hydrogen cell based on compound like NH3/O2/C, C/H2O which was delivering an inadequate electrical shock. So this hydrogen cell was not acceptable. The first hydrogen cell was imagined by Sir William Robert Grove in 1839, that why he is also known as the father of the hydrogen cell. He has done an experiment by mixing hydrogen and oxygen in the existence of an electrolyte and helped in the production of electricity and water.
[1]From Hydrogen production by water electrolysis (international journal of engineering and advanced technology) by md mamoon rashid, mohammed k.al mesfer, hamid naseem, mohmd danish - Alkaline water electrolysis is easiest and simplest methods for hydrogen production. Less efficiency is one of the great disadvantages in order to widespread use of this system. Effort for development and research needed to over comes the disadvantages like energy consumption, cost and maintenances, durability, reliability and safety. The kinetic analysis indicates the reaction rate in alkaline solution, ion transfer electrode surface activity and also effect of different electrolytes and additives on production. In the direction of improving this application the research have to consider significantly for reduce electrochemical reaction resistance, possibilities of low cost electrodes, electro catalysts, electrolytes and its additives to increase ionic mass transfer, corrosive resistive electrolytes and electrodes for durability of electrolyzer to reduce electrode surface tension, electrode surface profile modifications and surface coatings, and more importantly, managing the gas bubble resistances. Use innovative synthesis methods to produce new support materials, catalysts, and electrode systems.

[2]From Production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water and effects of the electrolyte type on the electrolysis performances by romdhane ben slama - Water electrolysis has long been known to produce hydrogen. However, for membrane electrolysers, used water must be pure. Mostly wastewater electrolysis gives the same performance or even better performance, because they contain bacteria that produce hydrogen. Among wastewater include those of ONAS (municipal wastewater), the margine, ammonia water of ammonia production plants, but water with vinegar and urine deemed rich in nitrogenous matter (ammonia) according to recent research from the University of Ohio in the United States. Hydrogen production by water electrolysis can be economically viable by using electrical energy from re-newable sources such as photovoltaic solar energy. Previous studies have relied on the use of salt water as electrolyte. In this article, shows vary the nature of the electrolyte leaning towards waste water deemed by their richness in bacteria which are the basis for hydrogen production. Human urine will also be also used in reference to the work of Boot.
[3]From home gas by hydrogen fuel cell in international journal of science and research by akanksha1, pbl chaurasia - Home gas by hydrogen fuel cells gives us a wonderful conclusion by discussing the use of hydrogen gas for cooking purpose. This project uses electrolysis process for splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Here the fuel Electrolysis is filled with de mineralized water having zero conductivity and potassium hydroxide (KOH). As the reactor gets dc supply it will ionize the molecules of hydrogen and oxygen and will separate it and will form hydrogen and oxygen and further recombine to form hydroxyoxygen (hho). hho- hydroxyoxygen (hho) is a diatomic structure made from the molecules of two atoms of both the gases oxygen and hydrogen. hho is emission free and considered as environmental friendly as it does not produce any carbon and other pollutants into the atmosphere when burned.
[4]From hydrogen and synthetic fuel pro-duction from renewable energy sources,international journal of hydrogen energy, vol. 32, no. 15, 2007, by s.h.jensen-Hydrogen Electrolysis is an efficient approach that used to increase the fuel efficiency in a automobiles by increasing the energy produced per mole of fuel during the ignition process. As a result the amount of unburned fuel in a combustion engine was reduced. The proposed approach is based on an ordinary hydrogen Electrolysis. Although people use hydrogen Electrolysiss in practice a very little research has been carried out in implementing an efficient system. In this research we mainly focused on finding an efficient conFiguration of an ordinary hydrogen Electrolysis that is efficient than an ordinary system. Here the Electrolysis was tested under several conditions in order to determine a convenient design for an efficient hydrogen Electrolysis. An efficient and optimal system is supposed to produce a large volume of hydrogen gas using a very little power.

[5]From-(online)http://autohydrogen.comavailable:http://auto-hydrogenwhat-is-hho/hho electrolytes. - Pure water is the very poor co electricity. Therefore, acid or base is used to improve the conductivity. In an alkaline electrolyzer, KOH, NaOH and H2SO4 solution mainly is used with water. Hydrogen can’t be stored but can be used directly without any storage. By using hydrogen gas it reduced amount of carbon deposition 15-30% compare LPG. Operating temperature 20-40degree celsius for alkaline electrolysis process. As can be seen the flammability limits are wide for hydrogen compared gasoline. Hydrogen has a small quenching distance smaller than LPG. Consequently, hydrogen flames travel closer to the chamber wall than other fuel before they extinguish. Thus it is more difficult to quench a hydrogen flame than LPG.



CHAPTER-4
PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

LPG is said to have some properties which makes it dangerous to handle it. Although the advantages of using LPG far outweigh the disadvantages, it always helps to know how LPG usage can also cause some disadvantages. The main disadvantage associated with the usage of LPG is to do with the storage and safety. To store LPG, you require very sturdy tanks and cylinders. The gas has to be kept pressurized to accommodate it in 274tines lesser space. This can also be perceived by the number of cases LPG cylinders have exploded and resulted in serious damages to lives and property. In colder climates or conditions, there is a known problem related to starting due to the low vapor pressure of propane. This is known to happen in conditions with sub 32 degrees Fahrenheit temperatures.
It has been noticed in some Asian countries that as LPG uses have gained popularity, the prices have also been increased. The initial installation fees with respect to equipments and an LPG connection for domestic uses is also priced higher. But yes, LPG is far much cheaper in the long run.
LPG boilers and gas stoves also need regular maintenance to ensure that they are running efficiently. Also, there has to be increased awareness yet to be created with regard to safe storage of LPG cylinders in domestic properties.




4.1PROJECT OBJECTIVES
• Reduce the cost of LPG and adopt the hydrogen gas in the application of cooking by using hydrogen Electrolysis.
• Try to make simple hydrogen Electrolysis which can be operated easily by everyone.
• As we know hydrogen is a very explosive gas so the problem in using hydrogen is the risks of fire or bursting. So this project deals with that problem by implementing the use of flash back arrestor. With the help of this flash back arrestor, at the time of back fire the entire system will be protected from the fire causing no harm to the humans as well as environments.
• Another problem of hydrogen includes storage and its production cost. But this project also gives a good explanation about hydrogen production, as here we are using water for hydrogen production which is abundant in nature.



5.1 ELECTROLYSIS CHAMBER
Electrolysis chamber is made up by PVC which is non ferrous material. Inside the Electrolysis hydrogen gas is produced by electrolysis process. For safety purpose the chamber haves no conducting property.
It is constructed by joining of PVC pipe with its end cup.
Inside the Electrolysis the electrolysis and electrodes are placed. And electrodes supply was given by chambers outside bolts.


5.2 ELECTRODES SETUP
10 Aluminum plates are used as electrodes. Where 5 is acts as a cathode and 5 is acts as a anode. The cathode and anode placed one by one with minimum distance and connected to DC power supply.
Electrodes function is made a chemical reaction inside the electrolyser when DC supply is ON by its conduction property.



5.3 HYDROGEN SOURCE
Distilled water is used as a source of hydrogen. In distilled water this solution can form as the steam liquefies in the condenser, resulting in a distilled water output with a PH which may be as low as 4, although PH 5 to 7 is more usual.

5.3.1 PROPERTIES OF DISTILLED WATER
• Raw water, which is having solids of 1000-1200 ppm, is charged into ion exchanges. After the water is treated in the ion exchange, distilled water of 5 ppm range dissolved solids is obtained.
• The PH value would range from 8.00 to 8.5 and the electrical conductivity will be up to 30 ms per cm.
• The PH value would range from 5.6 to 7.
• Distilled water of 5ppm range dissolved solids is obtained.
• No sediments



5.4 CATALYST
Solid KOH (Potassium hydroxide) is corrosive. Depending on the concentration, solutions of KOH are non-irritating or corrosive and they cause direct local effects on the skin, eyes and gastrointestinal tract.
Systemic effects are not to be expected. Solutions with concentrations higher than 2% are corrosive, while concentrations of about 0.5 to about 2.0%are irritating.
Hydrogen gas forms as a by-product on the cathode concurrently, an anodic oxidation of the chloride ion takes place, forming gas as a by- product. Separation of the anodic and cathode spaces in the electrolysis cell is essential for this process.


5.5.1 SPECIFICATIONS OF POWER SOURCE
Nominal voltage - 12V
Nominal capacity - 100Ah
Battery type - Sealed, maintenance-free
Length - 60cm
Height - 40cm
Weight - 15kg



CONSTRUCTION
• Fill two litter of distilled water inside the Electrolysis. Make sure the Electrolysis contains no holes or cavity.
• Mix 5 % of KOH (catalyst) in the distilled water.
• Make minimum distance between anode and cathode of electrodes and here used 4 anodes and 4 cathodes.
• Dip the electrode setup into that electrolyte mixture and the electrodes supply was given through wires.
• Close completely the chamber without any leakage.
• At the top of the Electrolysis or chamber gas tube was attached.
• Gas tube end was attached with regulator.
• Regulator end was provides the way for gas fill the storage bag.
• Using gas tube takes out the gas from storage bag to burner tip.
• Battery positive terminal was connected with anode wire of the electrodes.
• Battery negative terminal was connected with cathode wire of electrodes.
• After done the assembly check the leakage and electrical shock.
• If all the conditions ok then switch on the DC supply.
 

Marked Categories : hydrogen rich water,

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