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BY: Lakshmi Supriya.D M.Tech 04IT6002 Dept. of Information Technology
What are Biometrics?
Why are Biometrics used?
How Biometrics is today?
Iris is the area of the eye where the pigmented or colored circle,usually brown, blue, rings the dark pupil of the eye.
This relies on the fact that a fingerprint’s uniqueness can be defined by analyzing the minutiae of a human being.
Two individuals having the same fingerprint is less than one in a billion.
The person to be identified is usually pronounce a designated password or phrase, which facilitates the verification process.
But has the weakness of technology
This is done by analyzing the shape, speed, stroke, pen pressure and timing information during the act of signing.
Dynamic signature verification is a replacement.
To identify any person we generally look at face and eyes in particular seem to tell a story how the person feels.
Face recognition is a kind of electronic unmasking
The image of the hand is collected and the feature vectors are extracted and compared with the database feature vectors.
Iris Recognition systems
The iris-scan process begins with a photograph. A specialized camera, typically very close to the subject, not more than three feet, uses an infrared imager to illuminate the eye and capture a very high-resolution photograph. This process takes 1 to 2 seconds.
Creating an Iris code
The picture of eye first is processed by software that localizes the inner and outer boundaries of the iris.
And it is encoded by image-processing technologies.
In less than few seconds, even on a database of millions of records, the iris code template generated from a live image is compared to previously enrolled ones to see if it matches to any of them.
Major characteristics of iris recognition
Iris is thin membrane on the interior of the eyeball.
Iris pattern remains unchanged after the age of two and does not degrade overtime or with the environment.
Iris patterns are extremely complex than other biometric patterns
Typical iris system configuration for taking a picture
An iris recognition camera takes a black and white picture from 5 to 24 inches away.
The camera uses non-invasive, near-infrared illumination that is barely visible and very safe.
And this iris recognition cannot take place without the person permission
Both the inner boundary and the outer boundary of a typical iris can be taken as circles. But the two circles are usually not co-centric. Compared with the other part of the eye, the pupil is much darker. We detect the inner boundary between the pupil and the iris. The outer boundary of the iris is more difficult to detect because of the low contrast between the two sides of the boundary. We detect the outer boundary by maximizing changes of the perimeter- normalized along the circle. The technique is found to be efficient and effective.
The size of the pupil may change due to the variation of the illumination and the associated elastic deformations in the iris texture may interface with the results of pattern matching. For the purpose of accurate texture analysis, it is necessary to compensate this deformation. Since both the inner and outer boundaries of the iris have been detected, it is easy to map the iris ring to a rectangular block of texture of a fixed size.
The original image has low contrast and may have non-uniform illumination caused by the position of the light source. These may impair the result of the texture analysis. We enhance the iris image reduce the effect of non-uniform illumination.
Comparison Of Iris Recognition With Other Biometrics
Y.Zhu,T.Tan and Y.Wang,”Biometric Identification Based on Iris Pattern”.
Anil K Jain,”Biometric Authentication: How Do I Know Who You Are”.
D Maltoni, D.Maio, Anil K Jain, and S prabhakar”Handbook of Finger print Recognition”.