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Post: #1



To determine the
Output power of Pelton Wheel Turbine.
Efficiency of the Turbine.
To plot the following performance characterstics
Efficiency Vs BHP
Head Vs BHP
Discharge Vs BHP


Hydraulic (or water) Turbines are the machines, which uses the Energy of water (Hydro- Power) and convert it into mechanical Energy. Thus the Turbines become the Electrical Generators to produce the electricity, Viz., Hydro Electric Power.
The turbines are classified as impulse & Reaction types. In impulse turbine, the head of the Water is completely converted into a jet, which impulse the force on the turbine. In Reaction Turbine, it is the pressure of the flowing water, which rotates the runner of the turbine. Of many types of turbines, the Pelton Wheel, most commonly used, falls into the category of Reaction turbines.
Normally, Pelton Wheel (Impulse Turbine) requires high head and low Discharge While the Francis & Kaplan (Reaction Turbines) requires relatively low head and high Discharge. These corresponding heads and Discharges are difficult to create in laboratory size Turbine from the limitation of the Pumps availability in the market. Nevertheless, at least the performance characteristics could be obtained within the limited facility available in the laboratories, further, understanding of various elements associated with any particular Turbine is possible with this kind of facility.


Starting Procedure:

1. Clean the apparatus and make all Tanks free from Dust.
2. Close the drain valve provided.
3. Fill Sump tank ¾ with clean Water and ensure that no foreign particles are there.
4. Close Control Valves provided on delivery line.
5. Open By-Pass Clean the apparatus and make All Tanks free from Dust.
6. Close the drain valve provided.
7. Fill the Sump tank ¾ with Clean Water and ensure that no foreign particles are there.
8. Close control valves provided on delivery line.
9. Open By-Pass valve.
10. Fill manometer fluid i.e. Hg. In manometer.
11. Close the spear valve.
12. Now switch on the Main Power Supply (440 V AC, 50 Hz).
13. Switch on the Pump with the help of Starter.
14. Open Control Valve slowly to avoid the blow of water on manometer fluid.
15. Now open the Air release Valve provided on the Manometer, slowly to release the air in manometer.
16. When there is no air in the manometer, close the Air release valves.
17. Now open the spear valve to allow the water to turbine’s buckets in shape of jet.
18. Now Turbine is in operation.
19. Regulate the discharge by operating Control Valve, By-Pass Valve and Spear Valve.
20. Load the turbine with the help of hand wheel attached to the Spring Balance.
21. Note the manometer Reading.
22. Note the Pr. Gauge reading.
23. Note the RPM of the Turbine.
24. Note the Fixed and Adjustable Balance Readings.


The actual experimental facility supplied consist of Centrifugal Pump Set, turbine Unit, Sump Tank, arranged in such a way that the whole unit works as re-circulating water system. The Centrifugal Pump Set supplies the water from Sump Tank to the turbine through control valve. The loading of the turbine is achieved by rope brake drum connected to spring balance.

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