MODERN TRENDS IN IC ENGINES AND AUTOMOBILES
MODERN TRENDS IN IC ENGINES.doc
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The world is changing and so is your car, for behind its exotic looks and comfortable interiors lies the most advanced of technology that has been derived from years of evolution. Technology today has transformed your family car into an aggressive, efficient and futuristic mode of commutation. It is capable of a variety of operations from driving to work, to speeding off on the interstate, and the day isn’t far when you can even take it to the track. Today’s cars have technology that has been derived and modified form high performance Formula-1 cars, to technology that simply makes driving a pleasure. Your car is not only a mode of speedy transport but more safer and stronger.
In this paper we will concentrate on just a few of these advancements
Gone are the days when your car was just a car, it now resembles something you would see in an old re-run of a James Bond Classic. Today’s automobiles are capable of delivering more than one can imagine. Modernizations in automobiles have influenced every part of automobile and in doing so have transformed it into a work of art.
THE INJECTOR AND SENSORS
A fuel injector is nothing but an electronically controlled valve. It is supplied with pressurized fuel by the fuel pump in your car, and it is capable of opening and closing many times per second.
When the injector is energized, an electromagnet moves a plunger that opens the valve, allowing the pressurized fuel to squirt out through a tiny nozzle. The nozzle is designed to atomize the fuel -- to make as fine a mist as possible so that it can burn easily.
The amount of fuel supplied to the engine is determined by the amount of time the fuel injector stays open. This is called the pulse width, and it is controlled by the ECU.
The injectors are mounted in the intake manifold so that they spray fuel directly at the intake valves. A pipe called the fuel rail supplies pressurized fuel to all of the injectors.
In order to provide the right amount of fuel, the engine control unit is equipped with a whole lot of sensors. Let's take a look at some of them.
In order to provide the correct amount of fuel for every operating condition, the engine control unit (ECU) has to monitor a huge number of input sensors. Here are just a few:
Mass airflow sensor - Tells the ECU the mass of air entering the engine
Oxygen sensor - Monitors the amount of oxygen in the exhaust so the ECU can determine how rich or lean the fuel mixture is.
Throttle position sensor - Monitors the throttle valve position so the ECU can respond quickly to changes, increasing or decreasing the fuel rate as necessary.
Coolant temperature sensor - Allows the ECU to determine when the engine has reached its proper operating temperature.
Voltage sensor - Monitors the system voltage in the car so the ECU can raise the idle speed if voltage is dropping.
Manifold absolute pressure sensor - Monitors the pressure of the air in the intake manifold
The amount of air being drawn into the engine is a good indication of how much power it is producing; and the more air that goes into the engine, the lower the manifold pressure.
Engine speed sensor - Monitors engine speed, which is one of the factors used to calculate the pulse width.
HYDROGEN COMBUSTION ENGINE
The use of hydrogen as a fuel in motor vehicles offers several advantages over traditional fossil fuels:
There exists an unlimited supply of hydrogen
Hydrogen is renewable
Hydrogen is clean burning
Hydrogen weighs less and generates more power than hydrocarbon-based fuels.
Hydrogen burns faster (and at a lower temperature) than conventional gasoline.
In addition to running on hydrogen instead of fossil fuels, the internal components of the H2R's engine are unique in two significant ways: the hydrogen-injection valve and the materials used for the combustion chambers. In the H2R, the injection valves have been integrated into the intake manifolds, as opposed to injecting fuel directly into the combustion chambers.
Liquid hydrogen does not lubricate the way gasoline does, so the H2R uses altered valve seat rings that compensate for this.
ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEM
There are many different variations and control algorithms for ABS systems. We will discuss how one of the simpler systems works.
The controller monitors the speed sensors at all times. It is looking for decelerations in the wheel that are out of the ordinary. Right before a wheel locks up, it will experience a rapid deceleration. If left unchecked, the wheel would stop much more quickly than any car could. It might take a car five seconds to stop from 60 mph (96.6 kph) under ideal conditions, but a wheel that locks up could stop spinning in less than a second.
The ABS controller knows that such a rapid deceleration is impossible, so it reduces the pressure to that brake until it sees an acceleration, then it increases the pressure until it sees the deceleration again. It can do this very quickly, before the tire can actually significantly change speed. The result is that the tire slows down at the same rate as the car, with the brakes keeping the tires very near the point at which they will start to lock up. This gives the system maximum braking power.
When the ABS system is in operation you will feel a pulsing in the brake pedal; this comes from the rapid opening and closing of the valves. Some ABS systems can cycle up to 15 times per second.
The advancements in the IC engines and Automobiles is continuing to meet the requirements of the customers and in concern with environmental criteria and manage the resources effectively and in a better way.
At the rate at which technology is progressing the day is not far when the car will be so sophisticated that one will just have to walk in and let the car drive itself and make accurate decisions as to how best to maneuver the automobile to its destination. With most of the automotive technology having its basis in the aircraft and formula-1, flying cars may soon be in every home.