NATIONAL FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME
National family welfare programme (2).docx
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India is the second populous country in the world, next only to China. It holds 17.5% of the world’s population within just 2.5% of the total land mass of the earth. In an area of about one third of the United States, it supports a population three times of that country. This emphasizes the need for population programs to control population growth.
NATIONAL FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME
• India launched a nationwide family planning programme in1952 making it the first country in the world to do so, though records show that birth control clinics have been functioning in the country since 1930.
• During the Third and Five Year Plan (1961 66).,family planning was declared as "the very centre of planned development". The emphasis was shifted from the purely clinical approach to the more vigorous extension education approach" for motivating the peopleforacceptance of the "small family room". The introduction of the Lippse Loop in 1965 necessitated a major structural reorganization of the programme, leading to the creation of a separate Department of Family Planning in 1966 in the Ministry of Health.
• During the years 1966 the family planning infrastructure (eg. primary health centres, subcentres, urban family planning centres, district and State bureaus) was strengthened. During the fourth five year plan (1966-1974).
• The Govt. of India gave top priority to the programme. The Programme was made an integral part of MCH activities of PHCssand their subcentres. In 1970 an all India hospital postpartum programme and in 1972, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) were introduced
• The programme continues ever since and has, in fact, gathered momentum over the decades. And in the process, it has passed through four major phases of its development, signifying evolution of the programme. These phases, are known as family planning phase, family welfare phase, child survival and safe motherhood (CSSM) phase and reproductive and child health (RCH) phase.
FAMILY PLANNING PHASE
The family planning phase was started by adopting a clinical approach and establishing a limited number of clinics that distributed educational material and offered opportunities for training and research in the field of family planning. The clinical approach extended for the first two Five Year Plan periods and obviously failed to create a dent on the population growth. The total outlay on the family planning during the first two Five Year Plans was just Rs 5.65 crores.
However, during the Third Plan period, family planning was treated as an important area of national planned development, and its outlay was raised to Rs 27 crores. The clinical approach was replaced by an extension education approach, and the infrastructure for the family planning activity was established within the primary health care system of the country.
Maternal health care
Maternal health care envisaged is expected to be able to (a) generate community awareness to promote universal screening of pregnant women to identify those with problems, (b) refer women with complications to appropriate institutions for care, © achieve 100% coverage of women under tetanus toxoid immunization,refer obstetric emergency cases to the nearest first referral units (FRUs) for expert management and provide skilled attendance at delivery and advise institutional delivery, especially for those with health or obstetric problems.
Child health care
The child health care envisaged is expected to ensure (a) universal newborn care at delivery, (b) immunization of infants/children against vaccine-preventable diseases, © food and micronutrient supplementation of children, (d) early detection and appropriate management of acute respiratory infections and acute diarrhoeal disease episodes in children, (e) nutrition promotion of children through exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, (f) timely
introduction of complementary feeding of infants and (g) detection and management of growth faltering in children.
It is envisaged that the programme shall help (a) to improve access of consumers to fertility regulation services,(b) to recognize and strengthen institutions providingsafe MTP (medical termination of pregnancy) servicesand © to ensure that women do accept appropriatecontraception at the time of MTP to prevent repeating ofabortion service, following an unwanted pregnancy.