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Post: #1

Abhishek Chaudhary

.doc  PepsiReport.doc (Size: 159.5 KB / Downloads: 139)

The recipe for Pepsi, the soft drink, was first developed in the 1890s by a North Carolinapharmacist and industrialist, Caleb Bradham, who named it "Pepsi-Cola" in 1898. As the cola developed in popularity, he created the Pepsi-Cola Company in 1902 and registered a patent for his recipe in 1903. The Pepsi-Cola Company was first incorporated in the state of Delaware in 1919. Ownership of this company traded hands several times throughout the 1920s and 1930s, and in the early 1960s its product line expanded with the creation of Diet Pepsi and Mountain Dew.
Separately, the Frito Company and H.W. Lay & Company - two American potato and corn chip snack manufacturers - began working together in 1945 with a licensing agreement allowing H.W. Lay to distribute Fritos in the Southeastern United States. The companies merged to becomeFrito-Lay, Inc. in 1961.
In 1965, the Pepsi-Cola Company merged with Frito-Lay, Inc. to become PepsiCo, Inc., the company it is known as at present. At the time of its foundation, PepsiCo was incorporated in the state of Delaware and headquartered in Manhattan, New York. The company's headquarters were relocated to their present location of Purchase, New York in 1970, and in 1986 PepsiCo was reincorporated in the state of North Carolina.
Acquisitions and divestments
Between the late-1970s and the mid-1990s, PepsiCo expanded via acquisition of businesses outside of its core focus of packaged food and beverage brands; however it exited these non-core business lines largely in 1997, selling some, and spinning off others into a new company named Tricon Global Restaurants, which later became known as Yum! Brands, Inc.. PepsiCo also previously owned several other brands that it later sold, in order to allow it to return focus to its primary snack food and beverage lines, according to investment analysts reporting on the divestments in 1997. Brands formerly (no longer) owned by PepsiCo include: Pizza Hut,[16] Taco Bell, KFC, Hot 'n Now, East Side Mario's, D'Angelo Sandwich Shops, Chevys Fresh Mex, California Pizza Kitchen, Stolichnaya (via licensed agreement),Wilson Sporting Goods and North American Van Lines.
The divestments concluding in 1997 were followed by multiple large-scale acquisitions, as PepsiCo began to extend its operations beyond soft drinks and snack foods into other lines of foods and beverages. PepsiCo purchased the orange juice company Tropicana Products in 1998, and merged with Quaker Oats Company in 2001, adding with it the Gatorade sports drink line and other Quaker Oats brands such as Chewy Granola Bars and Aunt Jemima, among others.
In August 2009, PepsiCo made a $7 billion offer to acquire the two largest bottlers of its products in North America: Pepsi Bottling Group andPepsiAmericas. In 2010 this acquisition was completed, resulting in the formation of a new wholly-owned subsidiary of PepsiCo, Pepsi Beverages Company. Also in late 2010, the company made its largest international acquisition when it purchased a majority stake inWimm-Bill-Dann Foods - a Russian food company which produces milk, yogurt, fruit juices and dairy products.
The Coca-Cola Company has historically been considered PepsiCo’s primary competitor in the beverage market, and in December 2005, PepsiCo surpassed The Coca-Cola Company in market value for the first time in 112 years since both companies began to compete. In 2009, the Coca-Cola Company held a higher market share in carbonated soft drink sales within the U.S. In the same year, PepsiCo maintained a higher share of the U.S. refreshment beverage market, however, reflecting the differences in product lines between the two companies. As a result of mergers, acquisitions and partnerships pursued by PepsiCo in the 1990s and 2000s, its business has shifted to include a broader product base, including foods, snacks and beverages. The majority of PepsiCo's revenues no longer come from the production and sale of carbonated soft drinks. Beverages accounted for less than 50 percent of its total revenue in 2009. In the same year, slightly more than 60 percent of PepsiCo's beverage sales came from its primary non-carbonated brands, namely Gatorade and Tropicana.
PepsiCo's Frito-Lay and Quaker Oats brands hold a significant share of the U.S. snack food market, accounting for approximately 39 percent of U.S. snack food sales in 2009. One of PepsiCo's primary competitors in the snack food market overall is Kraft Foods, which in the same year held 11 percent of the U.S. snack market share.
Raw Materials
Carbonated water constitutes up to 94% of a soft drink. Carbon dioxide adds that special sparkle and bite to the beverage and also acts as a mild preservative. Carbon dioxide is an uniquely suitable gas for soft drinks because it is inert, non-toxic, and relatively inexpensive and easy to liquefy.
The second main ingredient is sugar, which makes up 7-12% of a soft drink. Used in either dry or liquid form, sugar adds sweetness and body to the beverage, enhancing the "mouth-feel," an important component for consumer enjoyment of a soft drink. Sugar also balances flavors and acids.
Sugar-free soft drinks stemmed from a sugar scarcity during World War II. Soft drink manufacturers turned to high-intensity sweeteners, mainly saccharin, which was phased out in the 1970s when it was declared a potential carcinogen. Other sugar substitutes were introduced more successfully, notably aspartame, or Nutra-Sweet, which was widely used throughout the 1980s and 1990s for diet soft drinks. Because some high-intensity sweeteners do not provide the desired mouth-feel and aftertaste of sugar, they often are combined with sugar and other sweeteners and flavors to improve the beverage.
The overall flavor of a soft drink depends on an intricate balance of sweetness, tartness, and acidity (pH). Acids add a sharpness to the background taste and enhance the thirst-quenching experience by stimulating saliva flow. The most common acid in soft drinks is citric acid, which has a lemony flavor. Acids also reduce pH levels, mildly preserving the beverage.
Very small quantities of other additives enhance taste, mouth-feel, aroma, and appearance of the beverage. There is an endless range of flavorings; they may be natural, natural identical (chemically synthesized imitations), or artificial (chemically unrelated to natural flavors). Emulsions are added to soft drinks primarily to enhance "eye appeal" by serving as clouding agents. Emulsions are mixtures of liquids that are generally incompatible. They consist of water-based elements, such as gums, pectins, and preservatives; and oil-based liquids, such as flavors, colors, and weighing agents. Saponins enhance the foamy head of certain soft drinks, like cream soda and ginger beer.
To impede the growth of microorganisms and prevent deterioration, preservatives are added to soft drinks. Anti-oxidants, such as BHA and ascorbic acid, maintain color and flavor. Beginning in the 1980s, soft drink manufacturers opted for
Post: #2
Hii my name is jaffar hasan
I study in BBA3rd sem
From Ranebennur
I prepair a project for 3 rd sem i wish i finding a information pepsi industry in goa...i want your industry information
..then soft copy pepsi industry
Post: #3

ISDMA's statement on the allegations directed to the cola industry

Our products are absolutely safe. We meet or exceed all applicable government standards -- including those relating to agricultural pesticide residues -- in every country in which we operate, including India. Our products in India are developed and produced to the same stringent quality and safety standards we employ across the globe. Our products were completely safe three years ago when the India pesticide discussion first surfaced, and since then, we have increased testing on key ingredients and enhanced manufacturing processes to further minimize any potential trace pesticides in products. Furthermore we have been working to develop a scientifically validated test method capable of accurately and reliably measuring pesticides in soft drinks to extremely low subpart per billion (ppb) levels.

Through tight quality control measures, we are confident that our beverage ingredients achieve trace pesticide levels that are the lowest technically achievable anywhere in the world. Not only does Pepsi comply with the India Packaged Drinking Water Standard for total pesticide levels (under 0.5 ppb) in the treated water used to make our soft drinks, but we also are confident that our products in the marketplace meet that limit. The accompanying table provides a summary of pesticide test information:

Table 1 - Key Ingredient Test Resultss
Ingredient AB TPTRBS
Water 89% < 0.1 ppb
Sugar 10% < 0.1 ppb
Flavor, Caffeine, Color, etc. 1% < 0.1 ppb

The use of good manufacturing and hygiene practices, along with the use of approved, safe ingredients and rigorously treated water assure the safety of our products. Our normal quality testing program includes hundreds of tests carried out by our suppliers, our manufacturing plants, our internal central laboratories, and external accredited and internationally recognized laboratories. Our quality approach allows us to successfully make and provide consumers with billions of high quality and safe bottles and cans of soft drinks each year throughout the world.

Every water source used for Pepsi beverages must first be analytically qualified, which includes using accredited laboratories to test for at least 100 parameters. Many classes of compounds are evaluated, including pesticides, metals, radiologics, disinfectants, and organic and inorganic substances. In addition, the microbial quality is evaluated, to help confirm that our products will be microbially and chemically safe. We also believe that protection of water at the source is important, so we provide a formal training program to all of our key beverage plant personnel. The training covers a wide range of areas including water source selection, well construction, and source protection. At every plant, we require the incoming water to be purified even further, using a variety of treatments depending on the raw water characterization, to meet the exceptionally high standards of quality to be used in our products. At a minimum, every plant in India employs a dual back-to-back carbon filter to provide trace pesticide removal just in case any enters the incoming water supply.

PepsiCo commends the Government of India for its leadership in 2004 in establishing standards for pesticides in Packaged Drinking Water that were among the strictest anywhere in the world. According to Indian regulations, the treated water used for the manufacture of soft drinks must also meet these stringent limits-and the water we use consistently meets those standards. We conduct routine global pesticide sampling sweeps of water using an independent, respected, external laboratory in the United Kingdom-the Central Science Laboratory (CSL). Due to our rigorous water source qualification process, on-going monitoring, and purification of incoming water at all of our beverage plants worldwide, the CSL data show all treated water samples from our beverage plants in India contain no detectable pesticides. In addition, all plants regularly submit plant water samples to a Bureau of Indian Standards approved lab, and they too have shown no pesticide detections in our treated water to date.

In addition to the water used in our products, sugar is also a very important ingredient. Testing of sugar samples by the beverage industry and sugar industry has shown no issues with pesticides. In addition, in 2005 the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare undertook a comprehensive study of the quality of the sugar supply in India along with the Ministry of Agriculture. The preliminary results of this study, to be published as an effort of the local World Health Organization, show no pesticides detected in any of the over 200 samples which were obtained. This supports data from a study that was conducted in 2004 by the Sugar Processing Research Institute, with testing performed by CSL.

Sugar must meet high standards of quality, which are uniform for all of our beverage plants across the globe. All of our sugar manufacturers must undergo the same supplier qualification process. This centrally-developed and locally-executed process includes submission of samples to approved third-party laboratories, in order to verify the sugar meets our strict specifications. Also included in this supplier qualification process are audits of the refinery operations. To add to our already high quality standards, all of our plants in India further purify sugar with hot activated carbon and fine filtration, which has been demonstrated to be extremely effective at removing trace levels of pesticide residues if they happen to be present in sugar supplies.

Our flavor concentrates, which make up less than 1% of our finished beverages, also are diligently controlled. The suppliers of our key concentrate ingredients must pass a rigorous supplier qualification scheme, which includes detailed, on-site audits of every facility producing the ingredients. This qualification is centrally directed from our Technical Headquarters, and the same audit and verification standards are applied globally. Each supplier must submit written verification that each lot of ingredient shipped to our facilities meets our strict specifications. Flavor ingredients are tested twice, at the supplier and at time of receipt. Flavors which yield unacceptable test results are immediately screened out of use.

In addition to water, sugar, and flavor testing, other ingredients, which make up only a fractional part of the finished beverage, have been analyzed by outside laboratories. These include ingredients that are not agriculturally derived. None of the other additives had pesticide levels above the level of detection. One more key point on Pepsi flavors and concentrate ingredients: All materials sourced to manufacture concentrates are used all across the globe to produce our soft drinks.

So, our products are safe-absolutely. The scientific data described above demonstrate that pesticides are not a safety concern with our beverages. Nonetheless, in an ongoing effort to ensure safety and encourage consumer confidence, we want to work with the Indian government to establish an acceptable beverage testing methodology to support the establishment of appropriate pesticide limits in soft drinks. The analysis of residues at very low levels of detection even in water is difficult and requires expensive and highly sophisticated equipment not readily available in many countries. The complexity of testing beverages is partly due to the variety of ingredients which are not present in water. The ingredients can interfere with the detection of pesticides and lead to faulty results. Methods must be specific for beverage systems to eliminate this interference so accurate assessment of the pesticide residue content can be determined.

To that end, Pepsi has been working hard the past two years and is close to finalizing a beverage test method that will allow the industry to accurately measure pesticides to sub-ppb levels. Pepsi has engaged the premier methods validation leader, the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) International, to support the standard scientific protocol of conducting peer reviews and multiple laboratory validations in order to confirm the effectiveness of the test method. This test method involves very sophisticated equipment (gas chromatographs, liquid chromatographs, and mass spectrometers) and procedures (residue extraction from the test sample, separation from other materials, concentration for analysis, and selective/specific detection) to ultimately provide confidence in the accuracy and dependability of the results when testing a complex matrix like soft drinks.

We have always supported efforts which strive to improve the safety of India's drinking water, environment, and food supply. PepsiCo will continue to support and collaborate with the most appropriate Government ministries in order to assure the safety of the people of India.

PepsiCo remains committed to ensuring consumer safety, complying with all applicable regulations, protecting our product trademark, and delivering a safe, refreshing beverage to the consumer.

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