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SHAILESH D. KESARKAR
AMIT B. DALVI
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Smart grid refers to the a next generation electric power network that makes use of IT and high technologies. Compared to the telecommunication network, the electric power network have not developed remarkably in terms of creating innovative technologies. However, smart grid by revolutionizing the electric power network and being almost as powerful as the internet, is attracting many attentions among various industries.
Smart grid is a system that enables two-many communications in between consumers and electric power companies. In a smart grid system consumer’s information is received by the electric power companies in order to provide the most efficient electric network operations. In addition to the efficient operations of a power plant ,smart grid also make it possible to control power demand and distributed energy, including renewable energies. By installing an intelligent meter (smart meter) on the consumer side, especially households, monitoring the use of energy becomes much easier and even helps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
A SMART GRID delivers electricity from supplier to consumers using two- way digital technology to control appliances at consumers’ homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. It overlays the electricity distribution grid with an information and net metering system. Power travels from the power plant to your house through an amazing system called the power distribution grid. Such a modernized electricity networks is being promoted by many governments as a way of addressing energy independences, global warming and emergency resilience issues. Smart meters may be part of smart grid, but alone do not constitute a smart grid.
A smart grid includes an intelligent monitoring system that keeps track of all electricity flowing in the system. It also incorporates the use of superconductive transmission lines for less power loss, as well as the capability of the integrating renewable electricity such as solar and wind. When power is least expensive the user can allow the smart grid to turn on selected home appliances such as washing machines or factory processes that can run at arbitrary hours. At peak times it could turn off selected appliances to reduce demand.
Smart Grid And it’s Need
Understanding the need for smart grid requires acknowledging a few facts about our infrastructure. The power grid is the backbone of the modern civilization, a complex society with often conflicting energy needs-more electricity but fewer fossil fuels, increased reliability yet lower energy costs, more secure distribution with less maintenance, effective new construction and efficient disaster reconstruction. But while demand for electricity has risen drastically, its transmission is outdated and stressed. The bottom line is that we are exacting more from a grid that is simply not up to the task.
How “smart” should a smart power grid
The utilities get the ability to communicate with and control end user hardware, from industrial- scale air conditioner to residential water heaters. They use that to better balance supply and demand, in part by dropping demand during peak usage hours.
Taking advantages of information technology to increase the efficiency of the grid, the delivery system, and the use of electricity at the same time is itself a smart move. Simply put, a smart grid combined with smart meters enables both electrical utilities and consumer to be much more efficient.
A smart grid not only moves electricity more efficiently in geographic terms, it also enables electricity use to be shifted overtime-for example, from period of peak demand to those of off-peak demand. Achieving this goals means working with consumers who have “smart meters” to see exactly how much electricity is being used at any particular time. This facilitates two-way communication between utility and consumer. So they can cooperate in reducing peak demand in a way that it’s advantageous to both. And it allow to the use of two way metering so that customer who have a rooftop solar electric panel or their own windmill can sell surplus electricity back to the utility.
1. Intelligent –
Capable of sensing system overloads and rerouting power to prevent or minimize a potential outage; of working autonomously when conditions required resolution faster than humans can respond and co-operatively in aligning the goals of utilities, consumers and regulators.
2. Efficient –
Capable of meeting efficient increased consumer demand without adding infrastructure.
3. Accommodating –
Accepting energy from virtually any fuel source including solar and wind as easily and transparently as coal and natural gas: capable of integrating any and all better ideas and technologies – energy storage technologies. For e.g.- as they are market proven and ready to come online.
4. Motivating –
Enable real-time communication between the consumer and utility, so consumer can tailor their energy consumption based on individual preferences, like price and or environmental concerns.
5. Resilient –
Increasingly resistant to attack and natural disasters as it becomes more decentralization and reinforced with smart grid security protocol.
6. Green –
Slowing the advance of global climate change and offering a genuine path towards significant environmental improvement.
The bulk of smart grid technologies are already used in other applications such as manufacturing and telecommunications and are being adapted for use in grid operations. In general, smart grid technology can be grouped into five key areas
I. Integrated communications
Some communications are up to date, but are not uniform because they have been developed in an incremental fashion and not fully integrated. In most cases, data is being collected via modem rather than direct network connection. Areas for improvement include: substation automation, demand response, distribution automation, supervisory control and data acquisition(SCADA), energy management systems, wireless mesh networks and other technologies, power- line carrier communication s and fiber-optics. Integrated communication will allow for real time control, information and data exchange to optimize system reliability, asset utilization, and security.
II. Sensing and measurement
core duties are evaluating congestion and grid stability, monitoring equipment health, energy theft prevention, and control strategies support. Technologies include: advanced microprocessor meters (smart meter) and meter reading equipment, wide-area monitoring system, dynamic line rating(typically based on online reading by distributed temperature sensing combined with Real time thermal rating (RTTR) systems), electromagnetic signature measurement/analysis, time-of-use and real-time pricing tools, advanced switches and cables, backscatter radio technology, and Digital protective relays.
III. Smart meters
A smart grid replaces analog mechanical meters with digital meters that record usage in real time. Smart meters are similar to Advanced Metering Infrastructure meters and provide a communication path extending from generation plants to electrical outlets (smart socket) and other smart grid-enabled devices. By customer option, such devices can shut down during times of peak demand.
IV. Advanced components
Innovations in superconductivity, fault tolerance, storage, power electronics, and diagnostics components are changing fundamental abilities and characteristics of grids. Technologies within these broad R&D categories include: flexible alternating current transmission system devices, high voltage direct current, first and second generation superconducting wire, high temperature superconducting cable, distributed energy generation and storage devices, composite conductors, and “intelligent” appliances.
REDUCTION OF LOSSES IN GRID
TECHNICAL LOSSES IN T&D SYSTEM
Transmission system comprises of transmission towers, conductors, insulators and switchgear protection system transmits power from generating station to any particular distribution substation.
Distribution system comprises of feeder towers, poles and insulators etc. which distribute power from distribution substation to any particular area.
Parameters influencing T&D system:
2) Transmission line
3) Distribution line