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Solar power plant
What solar energy?
SOLAR POWER is the generation of eletricity from sunlight. This can be direct as with PHOTOVOLTAIES(PV) or indircet as with concentrating SOLAR POWER(CPS).
SOLAR POWER is form of eletromagnetic radiation emitted from sun , but especially that the part of there energy that is converted into THERMAL energy on the earth.
PHOTOVOLTAICS are arrays of cells containing a solar photovoltaics material that convert solar radiation into direct current electricity. Materials present used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline sillicon, cadmium telluride, sulfide cte.
Photovoltaic cells are capable of directly converting sunlight into electricity.
A simple wafer of silicon with wires attached to the layers. Current is produced based on types of silicon (n- and p-types) used for the layers. Each cell=0.5 volts.
Battery needed as storage
No moving partsdo no wear out, but because they are exposed to the weather, their lifespan is about 20 years.
CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANT
CONCETRATING SOLAR POWER system used lenses or mirrors to focus a large area of sunlight into a small area. Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is directed.
Advantages and Disadvantages
All chemical and radioactive polluting byproducts of the thermonuclear reactions remain behind on the sun, while only pure radiant energy reaches the Earth.
Energy reaching the earth is incredible. By one calculation, 30 days of sunshine striking the Earth have the energy equivalent of the total of all the planet’s fossil fuels, both used and unused!
Sun does not shine consistently.
Solar energy is a diffuse source. To harness it, we must concentrate it into an amount and form that we can use, such as heat and electricity.
Addressed by approaching the problem through:
1) collection, 2) conversion, 3) storage.
How much solar energy?
Concentrating solar power plant:
How concentrating solar power plant work?
SOLAR POWER PLANT
Solar Panels in Use
Because of their current costs, only rural and other customers far away from power lines use solar panels because it is more cost effective than extending power lines.
Note that utility companies are already purchasing, installing, and maintaining PV-home systems (Idaho Power Co.).
Largest solar plant in US, sponsored by the DOE, served the Sacramento area, producing 2195 MWh of electric energy, making it cost competitive with fossil fuel plants.
Efficiency is far lass than the 77% of solar spectrum with usable wavelengths.
43% of photon energy is used to warm the crystal.
Efficiency drops as temperature increases (from 24% at 0°C to 14% at 100°C.)
Light is reflected off the front face and internal electrical resistance are other factors.
Overall, the efficiency is about 10-14%.
Argument that sun provides power only during the day is countered by the fact that 70% of energy demand is during daytime hours. At night, traditional methods can be used to generate the electricity.
Goal is to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels.
Currently, 75% of our electrical power is generated by coal-burning and nuclear power plants.
Mitigates the effects of acid rain, carbon dioxide, and other impacts of burning coal and counters risks associated with nuclear energy.
pollution free, indefinitely sustainable.