Mr. RAHUL PARMAR
Mr. SUSHIL RATHOD
Mr. HARSHAD PATEL
Mr. CHETAN KOTHIYA
Mr. VIKRAMSINH MALIVAD
26768482-Speed-Control-of-Dc-Motor-pwm.doc (Size: 767.5 KB / Downloads: 1152)
SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING PWM TECHNIQUE
The aim of development of this project is towards providing efficient and simple method for control speed of DC motor using pulse width modulation technique. The modulation of pulse width is obtained using dual timer IC - NE556.
There are several methods for controlling the speed of DC motors. One simple method is to add series resistance using a rheostat. As considerable power is consumed in the rheostat, this method is not economical. Another method is to use a series switch that can be closed or opened rapidly. This type of control is termed as chopper control. The PWM based chopper circuit smoothly controls the speed of general purpose DC motors.
To get desired modulation of pulse width as output, we have fabricated astable multivibrator and monostable multivibrator circuit using single dual timer IC – NE 556. The width of the pulse is changed by varying the control voltage of the monostable circuit.
“To explain PULSE WIDTH MODULATION technique in brief.”
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Basics
There are many forms of modulation used for communicating information. When a high frequency signal has amplitude varied in response to a lower frequency signal we have AM (amplitude modulation). When the signal frequency is varied in response to the modulating signal we have FM (frequency modulation. These signals are used for radio modulation because the high frequency carrier signal is needs for efficient radiation of the signal. When communication by pulses was introduced, the amplitude, frequency and pulse width become possible modulation options. In many power electronic converters where the output voltage can be one of two values the only option is modulation of average conduction time.
1. Linear Modulation
The simplest modulation to interpret is where the average ON time of the pulses varies proportionally with the modulating signal. The advantage of linear processing for this application lies in the ease of de-modulation. The modulating signal can be recovered from the PWM by low pass filtering. For a single low frequency sine wave as modulating signal modulating the width of a fixed frequency (fs) pulse train the spectra is as shown in Fig 1.2. Clearly a low pass filter can extract the modulating component fm.
2. Sawtooth PWM
The simplest analog form of generating fixed frequency PWM is by comparison with a linear slope waveform such as a saw tooth. As seen in Fig 1.2 the output signal goes high when the sine wave is higher than the saw tooth. This is implemented using a comparitor whose output voltage goes to logic HIGH when ne input is greater than the other. Other signals with straight edges can be used for modulation a rising ramp carrier will generate PWM with Trailing Edge Modulation.
3. Regular Sampled PWM
The scheme illustrated above generates a switching edge at the instant of crossing of the sine wave and the triangle. This is an easy scheme to implement using analog electronics but suffers the imprecision and drift of all analog computation as well as having difficulties of generating multiple edges when the signal has even a small added noise. Many modulators are now implemented digitally but there is difficulty is computing the precise intercept of the modulating wave and the carrier. Regular sampled PWM makes the width of the pulse proportional to the value of the modulating signal at the beginning of the carrier period. In Fig 1.5 the intercept of the sample values with the triangle determine the edges of the Pulses. For a saw tooth wave of frequency fs the samples are at 2fs.
There are many ways to generate a Pulse Width Modulated signal other than fixed frequency sine sawtooth. For three phase systems the modulation of a Voltage Source Inverter can generate a PWM signal for each phase leg by comparison of the desired output voltage waveform for each phase with the same sawtooth. One alternative which is easier to implement in a computer and gives a larger modulation depth is using space vector modulation.
4. Modulation Depth
For a single phase inverter modulated by a sine-sawtooth comparison, if we compare a sine wave of magnitude from -2 to +2 with a triangle from -1 to +1 the linear relation between the input signal and the average output signal will be lost. Once the sine wave reaches the peak of the transgle the pulses will be of maximum width and the modulation will then saturate. The Modulation depth is the ratio of the current signal to the case when saturation is just starting. Thus sine wave of peak 1.2 compared with a triangle with peak 2.0 will have a modulation depth of m=0.6.