SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
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U. P. PROJECTS CORPORATION LTD. is a U. P. Govt. undertaking entrusted with construction of Infrastructure Projects e.g. Residential, Non-residential buildings including Hospitals, Colleges, Offices etc, Dams, Canals and different types of Hydraulic Structures, Roads and works related to Rural Development. The Corporation is carrying out projects in the State of Uttar Pradesh as well as other states of the country.
In year 1999 U.P. Govt. declared the corporation as CONSTRUCTION AGENCY vide G.O. No. 1434/99-27-Irrigation-5-36 Tw. Dt. 14-7-99 for construction of shallow and deep tubewells, hydrological structure such as Barrage, aquaduct, syphon, pump house, drainage, lining of canals, reservoir, underground and over head water tanks and distribution systems etc. In the year 2001 Govt. of U.P. again recognized it as Construction agency for construction of buildings wide letter no U. P. PROJECTS CORPORATION LTD. is a U.P. Govt. undertaking entrusted with construction of Infrastructure Projects e.g. Residential, Non-residential buildings including Hospitals, Colleges, Offices etc, Dams, Canals and different types of Hydraulic Structures, Roads and works related to Rural Development.
The cement often called the magic power is a fine ground material consisting of compound of lime ,silica alumina and iron. When mixed with water it forms a paste which hardened and bind the aggregates (sand, gravel, crushed rock, etc) together to form a durable mass called the Concrete. Cement is the binder that holds concrete and mortars together. Which is why it play the most critical role in giving strength and durability to your building. Cement uses for domestic building such as home are basically of three types.Portland Slag Cement: Portland slag cement(PSC) conforming to IS: 455 A combination of good quality blast furnace slag (from the iron steel industry) with clinker (which makes the OPC) and gypsum.
Portland Pozzolana Cement: Portland pozzolanacement (PCC) conforming to IS: 1489 A combination of flyash (from thermal power plant) with clinker and gypsum. pozzolana cement is prepared by grinding Portland cement clinker with pozzolana. This type of cement is largely used in marine structure.
Ordinary Portland Cement: Ordinary Portlandcement (OPC) 33 grade conforming to IS: 269, 43 grade conforming to IS: 8112 and 53 grade conforming to IS: 12269 A combination of clinker and gypsum of good quality. Ordinary Portland cement is manufactured by first burning at a very high temperature the mixture of calcareous (mainly calcium carbonate) and argillaceous (mainly clay) and then grinding the calcined product (i.e. clinker) with small amount of gypsum in to a fine power known as ordinary Portland cement.
These are cohesion less aggregates of either, rounded sub rounded, angular, sub angular or flat fragments of more or less unaltered rock of minerals consisting of 90% of particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less than 2 mm. Alternatively, these are coarse grained cohesion less particles of silica derived from the disintegration of rock. These are of three types:
Coarse sand: It is one which contains 90% of particles of size greater than 0.6 mm and less than 2 mm.
Medium sand: It is one, which contains 90& of particles of particles size greater than 0.2 mm and less than 0.6 mm.
Fine sand: It is one, which contains 90% of particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less than 0.2 mm.
Proper selection of sand is critical in the durability and performance of concrete mixture. It should be:
• Clear, angular and hard
• Free from clay, mica and soft, flaky material
• Graded, which means it should be a mix of fine, medium and coarse sand
• Fee from contaminates like sea salt
• Consistent in moisture (water) content which should not exceed 7%. When mixing concrete the moisture content must be taken in to consideration.
The price of sand includes three or four components-base cost, transportation, handling and number of intermediaries. Procuring sand in bulk directly from the source will be cheaper. Your neighborhood dealer in this case is likely to be costlier, except when you need smaller quantities.
Properties of Natural Aggregates:
The properties should comply with the norms laid down in IS: 38-1970 Specification for C.A. and F.A. from natural sources for concrete. Aggregates should be chemically inert, strong, hard, durable, of limited porosity (water absorption when immersed in water for 24 hours should not be more than 10%.), free from adherent coating, clay lumps, coal and coal residues and should contain no organic or other admixture that may cause corrosion of the reinforcement or impair the strength or durability of the concrete. The shape (rounded, irregular, angular and flaky) and sizes of the aggregates should conform to the strength and workability requirements.
RCC stands for reinforced cement concrete. To enhance the load carrying capacity of the concrete it is reinforced with steel bars of different diameters provided in an appropriate manner. Such concrete is called reinforced concrete and the bars are called the reinforcement. These bare are provided at various locations to resist the internal forces, which are developed due to the loads acting on the structure.
Reinforcing steel contributes to the tensile strength of the concrete. Concrete has low tensile, but high compressive strength. The tensile deficiency is compensated by reinforcing the concrete mass through insertion of plain or twisted mild steel bars. Both branded and unbranded bars are available. It is wise to buy good brands the names of which are marked on the steel. During construction make sure that steel reinforcement is provided exactly as the engineering design specification.