Water Level Indicator with Alarm
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Today I am going to talk about a very useful project that I had taken up. It is called the Water Level Indicator. Nowadays everybody has overhead tank at their homes.
But everyone who has a water tank above knows the kind of problems that they face. Firstly there is no system to track the water in the tank. Then there come a
secondary problem that is when their water pump is started they have no idea when it gets filled up and sometimes there are situation where the pump keeps on
pumping water to the tank and the water starts spilling out from the tank. There is wastage of energy as well as wastage of water .
This project that i had taken up is the result of long hours of research of work at the Internet as well as long hours of thinking. I had made various versions of the projects
earlier but at last i came up with this final product. I bet this has been tested and i can now firmly say that the model would work flawlessly without any complains for
years. I am saying this as i have installed this models to various houses in my neighborhood and all are working fine without any maintenance. And indeed this model is
admired by all who uses it.
The house where I live in has an overhead tank which is about 30 feet from the ground level. I was getting bored going up the rooftop to check whether the tank has filled
or the water level was below to start the pump. I had to do this again and again. Then I sought for a solution. I always used to think of the possibilities of how can this
problem be tackled in an electronic way. After years of research and by trial and error, I found one and wanted to put whatever I have done out here so that it may be
helpful to someone who has a overhead water tank at their homes.
The Working Principle
Basically the unit is made up of various sensors acting as a switch. Let me explain in a simple way. What happens is when you turn on you water pump, the water starts
to get pumped from your underground reservoir or from your underground water supply from the pipes to your water tank. In the tank there is a set of sensors( to be
precise there are 7 sensors), in the water tank. Just think them as a switch, as the work of the sensor will be to connect a circuit. I will explain in details in my
instructables. So the water starts to get filled in the tank and when the water level in the tank starts to rise up, what happens is that the sensors that is installed in the tank
starts to get activated one by one indicating the water level in the tank. And finally when it reaches to its top most sensor, there will be a visual display as well as a sound
from the unit indicating that the water has filled in the tank and one can be alerted that the tank has been filled up and the water pump has to be switched off saving the
electricity bill as well as over flow of water from the tank.
It has numerous transistors acting as a switch and the switch gets activated when the sensors tell them to.
The heart of the circuit is the transistors BC 547 . There are total7 transistors in the circuit and each one will be sensing the level of water present in the overhead water
tank. There is one extra power LED without a transistor and that is because this Red LED will be telling us two things. Firstly when you power the unit it will be monitoring
the power present in the unit and secondly it is also the indicator telling you that there is no water at all present in the tank. As because the water level is below the No. 1
(as shown in the circuit) sensor, no LED's will be lighting up, but only for the one Red LED. Therefore when you switch on your unit if you see only one Red LED lighting
up then you know that the is no water present in the tank and therefore you should make you water pump on.
The Buzzer Part
Here you can add any of the normal buzzers that are readily available in the market and if it is not then you can make yourself with a simple 555 IC. I am giving a small
circuit diagram, it is really simple to make and there are minimum parts. It is a simple audio oscillator. I have also provide a circuit diagram here but if you are able to
manage a buzzer then no need to assemble this circuit.
The Power Supply
This section contains a transformer converting the mains voltage 220V bring down to 9V. There is a bridge rectifier containing 4 diodes and making the Alternating current
to Direct Current. After the filtering the voltage is then directly fed to the voltage regulator (7805) with a filtering capacitor. From the regulator IC the output voltage is then
again filtered with a capacitor and is fed to the circuit. This comprises the power supply of the device.
Putting the circuit in a box
Now time to put the compiled circuit in a small box. Here i chose a Junction box that are used in electrical wiring. It was a perfect box for this project.
Now the tricky part is making holes in the plastic junction box so that LED can easily slip through the holes, also the spacing between the LED's should be proportionate.
First take the box and draw the outline in the face of the box. First for the switch you should make a marking at the bottom right hand side. Then mark the points for the
LED's. As told earlier it should be proportionate. Now unbend a paper clip and heat it with a soldering iron and make holes to the marked points as shown in the figure.
Installing the Device
The final part is installing the device to the tank and make it working.
First start with installing the water sensor in the overhead tank. As in figure this is the tank that we are going to install the sensor. Just survey the tank from every side to
see that you can fit the sensing part. Now take the sensor rod that you have prepared and dip into the tank so that it just touches the bottom. Now fix the sensor into the
water tank by screwing a screw directly to the water tank so that the water sensor rod doesn't move. The sensor rod should not move. That finishes the part of installing
the sensor rod to the water tank. Now to the device that we are going to install.
Now for installation of the device you should find a suitable place for easy view of the LED lights. It should also be installed in such a way that it should be out of reach of
the children. The best place for installing the device would be in the kitchen of a house. This is because while working in a kitchen you may want to turn on the water
pump and just cooking you would be able to get the updates from the tank on how much the water has filled. Just drill two holes in the walls and install it using a L hook.
Screw the two L hooks to the device and fix it to the wall. It should be firmly fixed. Then take the A/C 220V feed from any socket and give the power to the board.