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WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS AND SURVEY OF FLUORIDE AFFECTED RURAL AREA OF PANDAVAPURA
Post: #1

WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS AND SURVEY OF FLUORIDE AFFECTED RURAL AREA OF PANDAVAPURA TALUK MANDYA DISTRICT



.doc  1WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS.doc (Size: 2.02 MB / Downloads: 42)


INTRODUCTION

GENERAL


Dental disease accounts for more pain, suffering and loss of working hours than almost any other disease. And yet, since no one dies as a result of dental disease and since loss of teeth is still regarded incorrectly as a normal consequence of ageing, there has been no large scale emphasis on the preventive aspect of dentistry (1).
The major dental disease responsible for causing the above problem is dental caries. As dental caries is so commonly present among the population, particularly in children under the age sixteen, it is regarded as an inevitable part of life. In fact it is one of the most common disease in the world (2).
The other major dental disease which has received widespread attention is dental fluorosis. This disease affects the permanent detention and only rarely is deciduous teeth involved. At fluoride levels greater than 4.5 to 5.5 mg/l, lustreless white patches are liable to occur on the the surface of the teeth, together with some yellow or brown staining. In some cases, pitting may be present due to the loss of enamel. Dental fluorosis is an insidious disease which afflicts almost all the population which are dependent upon underground sources of drinking water. The tragedy of this disease is that it progressively cause pain to people, both physically and mentally over a long period of time, in its different manifestation (2).

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

i. To analyze the water quality parameters of water sources used for domestic purpose in the selected villages of Pandavapura taluk, Mandya district.
ii. To consolidate the number of cases of fluoride whether related dental caries or dental fluorosis in selected villages of Pandavapura taluk, Mandya district by conducting a survey in the region.
iii. To establish the relationship between fluoride related cases and water source used, age, personal habits, oral hygiene practised, socio-economic nutritional status and history of the disease.
iv. To create an awareness among the rural people regarding dental hygiene and health.

ORGANIZATION OF THESIS

First chapter contains the brief introduction about the project work and the objective of the present study.
Second chapter contains the relevant literature for fluoride related diseases and drinking water quality standards suggested by different agencies. In addition, this chapter presents the health effects related to the fluoride content.
Third chapter presents the details of study area, the sampling programme, sampling techniques, and procedures adopted.
In fourth chapter, results of fluoride content present in the water sample study. Also the water quality parameters of the samples.
In the last chapter, conclusions are drawn based on the result obtained in the present study and also recommendations have been given based on the present study.

THEORY OF DENTAL DISEASES

Physiology of Fluorides


Fluorine is an element that virtually never occurs in nature in its free, gaseous form. In the form of Fluorides. However, it is one of the most plentiful and widespread of elements, standing seventeenth in order of abundance in the earth’s crust. Fluorides occurs in water, soil, rocks, dust, volcanic gases and the atmosphere. They are also present in most foods, mango plants and virtually all animal tissues. Fluoride has an atomic weight of 19.0. Fluorine stands in the ninth place in the periodic table and is one of the most electro-negative and active of all elements. Almost every foodstuff consists at least a trace of Fluorides but the total intake from solid food is relatively small and amounts to only about 0.5 to 1.0 mg/day. Tea contains more Fluoride than any other dietary item in Britain. The amount ranges from 1.0 to 3.0 mg/l (2)
The world’s Fluoride stores in the soil are estimated to be 85 million tons, of which nearly 12 million tons are located in India (9).

Toxicology of Fluoride

Fluorides exert a toxic effect in humans in three forms:
1. Effects on Bones.
2. Effect on Teeth
3. Acute Fluoride poisoning.
The major effect on bone is Skeletal Fluorosis, a condition where bones are extremely calcified and resemble ankylosing spondylitis. The bones are deformed and are osteosclerotic. They are much larger than normal bones but have very little strength. Hence the person may suffer spontaneous factures and usually becomes hunchbacked. This condition can develop when water Fluoride levels exceed 8 mg/l (14).
Acute Fluoride poisoning occurs when a single large dose of Fluoride is ingested. The actual lethal dose of Fluoride for man is probably about 5 gm of Sodium Fluoride (which yield 2.2 gF). It is obviously impossible for fluoridated water ever to cause acute Fluoride poisoning. Thus, in order to receive even 1 gF, one would have to consume, over a very short period of time, 1000 litres of water.

Dental Fluorosis

Dental Fluorosis is a specific disturbance of tooth formation caused by excessive Fluoride intake. It is characterised clinically by lustreless, opaque, white patches in the enamel which may become mottled, striated and/or pitted. The mottled areas may become stained yellow and brown. The affected teeth may show a pronounced accentuation of the perikymata, or have multiple pits. Hypoplastic areas may also be present to such an extent in severe cases, that the normal tooth from is lost (15).The way in which Fluoride might exert its effect has been studies principally using chemical and histopathological techniques. An observation of great theoretical interest is that although the outermost layer of the shark’s teeth contains more than a hundred times the fluoride content of human Mottled Enamel, there is no signs of disturbance in its mineralisation. This suggests that the epithelial enamel organ of human teeth demonstrate specific sensitivity to Fluorides (WHO, 1970).

SELECTION OF STUDY AREA

In 1983-84, the Govt., of Karnataka embarked on an ambitious programme to provide drinking water supply to all the villages in rural Karnataka. The above scheme was implemented by a minister Mr.Nazeer Saab. Following this, report of increased incidence of fluoride related diseases came in from doctors at primary health centers (PHC’s) in many taluks and districts. One such report, from Pandavapura taluk caught our attention. On March 2012, we visited Pandavapura taluk on a preliminary survey. The doctors in the PHC have provided us with data regarding the number of cases treated during the past year. We also visited 22 sampling points in the villages of Chikkaboganahalli, Byatarayanakoppalu, Illenaalli, Ashoknagar, Singapura, Maramahalli, Nalenahalli and carried out an examination of the people with help of doctors.
Post: #2
can i downloadthis full thesis?
Post: #3
Question 
can i download this full thesis please?
Post: #4
yes off course from the above message you can download full message...
Post: #5
thanks for the analysis report
Post: #6
The rural population of India comprises more than 700 million people residing at around 1.42
Millions of houses spread over 15 diverse ecological regions. It is true that providing alcoholic beverages
Water for such a large population is a huge challenge. Our country is also characterized by
Non-uniformity in the level of consciousness, socioeconomic development, education, poverty, practices
And the rituals that add to the complexity of providing water.
The health burden of poor water quality is enormous. It is estimated that about 37.7 million
Indians are affected annually by waterborne diseases, an estimated 1.5 million children die
Diarrhea alone and 73 million working days are lost due to waterborne illness every year. the
The resulting economic burden is estimated at 600 million dollars per year. The problems of
Contamination is also prevalent in India with 1,95,813 households in the country being affected by
Poor water quality. The main chemical parameters of concern are fluoride and arsenic. Iron is also
Emerging as a major problem with many homes showing excess iron in water samples.
The Constitution of India has given priority to the provision of drinking water
Article 47 conferring the duty to provide potable water and improve public health
Norms to the State. The government has undertaken several programs since independence
To provide potable water to the rural masses. Up to the tenth plan, an estimated total of
Rs.1, 105 million dollars spent on providing potable water. It could be argued that spending is
Huge but also true that despite the lack of these safe and safe drinking water costs
It remains a major obstacle and a national economic burden.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


I. To analyze the water quality parameters of water sources used for domestic purposes in the selected villages of Pandavapura taluk, Mandya district.
Ii. Consolidate the number of cases of fluoride, whether related to dental caries or dental fluorosis in the selected villages of Pandavapura taluk, Mandya district by conducting a survey in the region.
Iii. To establish the relationship between the cases related to fluoride and the source of water used, age, personal habits, oral hygiene practiced, socioeconomic nutritional status and antecedents of the disease.
Iv. Create awareness among the rural population about dental hygiene and health.

In India, the primary responsibility for providing clean water and sanitation services
State governments. With the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments, states have the Local authority to give responsibility for local water supply to the Panchayati Raj (PRI) Institutions and Local Urban Organs (ULBs).The role of the Center is to allocate funds and guide investments, foster research,
Through training and other capacity-building efforts,Monitoring, providing guidelines for various programs and ensuring the implementation of Water supply programs .QHn
 

Marked Categories : water qulity topics, water quality, water quality analysis, panadavpura taluk groundwater details,

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