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Intelligent Train
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Intelligent Train

.doc  Intelligent Train.doc (Size: 650 KB / Downloads: 68)


We know that the railway network of India is the biggest in south Asia and perhaps the most complicated in all over the world. There are so many different types of trains local, fast, super fast, passenger, goods.. etc. and their so many multiple routs. Although the time table is perfect it is not at all possible to maintain it. And that’s why the train accidents are becoming more and more usual. So why not we add a kind of intelligence to the train engines itself so that it tries to avoid accidents.
The idea is whenever any engine observes a red signal on its track it will start decreasing its speed gradually and stops automatically at some distance from the signal pole. After then when it gets green signal the driver can manually start the train and go on. In the mean time when train has not stopped yet and a red signal becomes green then it crosses the signal pole with low speed and then driver can slowly increase the speed.


Criteria for choosing Micro controller:
1. The first & foremost criterion in choosing a Micro controller is that it must meet the task at hand efficiently & cost effectively. In analyzing the needs of a Micro controller based project, we must first see whether an 8-bit, or 16-bit, or 32-bit Micro controller can best handle the computing needs of the task most effectively. Among other considerations in the category are:
• Speed: What is the highest speed that the Micro controller supports?
• Packaging: Does it comes in 40-pin DIP (dual in line package) or 28-pin DIP or a QFP (quad flat package) or some other packaging format? This is important in terms of space, assembling & prototyping the end product.
• Power consumption: This is especially critical for battery-powered products.

PIC 16F73 from Micro-chip Corporation:
This popular PIC 16F73 chip has inbuilt ADC and on-chip ROM in the form of program and data memory. This is ideal for development since flash memory can be erased in seconds compared to the twenty minutes or more needed for the 8751 for this reason the PIC 16F73 is used in place of the 8751 to eliminate the waiting time needed to erase the chip & thereby speed up the development time. To use the PIC 16F73 to develop a micro controller based system requires a ROM burner that supports flash memory; however, a ROM eraser is not needed. Notice that in flash memory you must erase the entire contents of ROM in order to program it again.

Voltage Regulator 7805:
We need the regulated 5 V output for the most of the IC’s used in our system. Now the output of bridge rectifier is unregulated DC. To get 5V regulated DC output from it we have used regulator IC 7805. The 7805 is designed with adequate heat sinking and can deliver output currents in excess of 1A. It has internal thermal overload protection and internal short circuit current limiting. For proper operation a common ground is required between input and output voltages.

MAX 232 (DS 14C232):
The DS14C232 is a low power dual driver/receiver featuring an onboard DC to DC converter. ICC is specified at 3.0 mA maximum, making the device ideal for battery and power conscious applications. The driver’s slew rate is set internally and the receivers feature internal noise filtering, eliminating the need for external slew rate and filter capacitors. The device is designed to interface data terminal equipment (DTE) with data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE).

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