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Tags: Bioinformatics, Bioinformatics ppt, Bioinformatics pdf, bioinformatics institute of india, bioinformatics jobs, bioinformatics projects, bioinformatics introduction, bioinformatics journal, bioinformatics pdf, bioinformatics tools, bioinformatics jobs in india, bioinformatics companies in india,
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Bioinformatics is the application of information technology and computer science to the field of molecular biology Over the past few decades rapid developments in genomic and other molecular research technologies and developments in information technologies have combined to produce a tremendous amount of information related to molecular biology. It is the name given to these mathematical and computing approaches used to glean understanding of biological processes. Common activities in bioinformatics include mapping and analyzing DNA and protein sequences, aligning different DNA and protein sequences to compare them and creating and viewing 3-D models of protein structures Bioinformatics was applied in the creation and maintenance of a database to store biological information at the beginning of the "genomic revolution", such as nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Development of this type of database involved not only design issues but the development of complex interfaces whereby researchers could both access existing data as well as submit new or revised data.
In order to study how normal cellular activities are altered in different disease states, the biological data must be combined to form a comprehensive picture of these activities. Therefore, the field of bioinformatics has evolved such that the most pressing task now involves the analysis and interpretation of various types of data, including nucleotide and amino acid sequences, protein domains, and protein structures. The actual process of analyzing and interpreting data is referred to as computational biology. Important sub-disciplines within bioinformatics and computational biology include:
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please read for getting full report of Bioinformatics and more
Post: #3
4G LTE (long term evolution ) technolgy
Post: #4

In telecommunications, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communications for mobile phones and data terminals, based on GSM / EDGE and UMTS / HSPA technologies. Increases capacity and speed using a different radio interface along with major network enhancements. The standard is developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) and specified in its Release 8 document series, with minor improvements described in Version 9. LTE is the upgrade path for carriers with GSM / UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The different frequencies and LTE bands used in different countries mean that only multi band phones can use LTE in all countries where it is compatible.

LTE is commonly marketed as 4G LTE, but does not meet the technical criteria of a 4G wireless service as specified in the 3GPP Release 8 and 9 document series for LTE Advanced. The requirements were originally established by the ITU-R organization in the IMT Advanced specification. However, due to marketing pressures and the significant advances that WiMAX, Evolved High Speed ​​Packet Access and LTE bring to the original 3G technologies, ITU later decided that LTE along with the technologies mentioned can be called 4G technologies. The LTE Advanced standard formally meets the ITU-R requirements to be considered IMT-Advanced. To differentiate LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advanced from current 4G technologies, ITU has defined them as "True 4G".
LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and is a registered trademark owned by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) for wireless data communications technology and development of GSM / UMTS standards. However, other nations and companies play an active role in the LTE project. The goal of LTE was to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using new DSP (Digital Signal Processing) techniques and modulations that were developed around the turn of the millennium. Another objective was the redesign and simplification of the network architecture to an IP-based system with a significant reduction of the transfer latency compared to the 3G architecture. The LTE wireless interface is incompatible with 2G and 3G networks, so it must be operated on an independent radio spectrum.
LTE was first proposed by NTT DoCoMo from Japan in 2004, and studies on the new standard officially began in 2005. The LTE services were launched by major North American operators as well, with the Samsung SCH-r900 being the First mobile LTE On September 21, 2010 and Samsung Galaxy Indulge being the first LTE smartphone in the world as of February 10, 2011, both offered by MetroPCS and HTC Thunder Bolt offered by Verizon from March 17 being the second phone Intelligent LTE to be sold commercially.

The LTE specification provides down link peak speeds of 300 Mbit / s, 75 Mbit / s uplink peak rates and QoS arrangements that allow a transfer latency of less than 5 ms in the radio access network. LTE has the ability to manage fast moving mobiles and supports multi-cast and broadcast transmissions. LTE supports carrier scalable bandwidths from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD). The Evolved Packet Core (EPC) -based network architecture, designed to replace the GPRS Core Network, supports voice and data transfers to cellular towers with older network technology such as GSM, UMTS and CDMA2000. The simplest architecture results in lower operating costs (for example, each E-UTRA cell will support up to four times HSPA-compliant voice and data capacity).

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